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Title: Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF

Abstract

Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a transcription factor discovered based on its biochemical activity to suppress transcription elongation, and has since been implicated in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. Besides its role in promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II during early stages of transcription, recently we found that it also plays important roles in the 3'-end processing of histone mRNA. Furthermore, NELF has been found to form a distinct subnuclear structure, which we named NELF bodies. These recent developments point to a wide range of potential functions for NELF, and, as most studies on NELF thus far had been carried out in vitro, here, we prepared a complete set of fusion protein constructs of NELF subunits and carried out a general cell biological study of the intracellular dynamics of NELF. Our data show that NELF subunits exhibit highly specific subcellular localizations, such as in NELF bodies or in midbodies, and some shuttle actively between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We further show that loss of NELF from cells can lead to enlarged and/or multiple nuclei. This work serves as a foundation and starting point for further cell biological investigations of NELF in the future.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan)
  2. Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22209769
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 315; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOCHEMISTRY; CYTOPLASM; ELONGATION; MESSENGER-RNA; NEOPLASMS; TRANSCRIPTION; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

Citation Formats

Yung, Tetsu M.C., Narita, Takashi, Komori, Toshiharu, Yamaguchi, Yuki, and Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhanda@bio.titech.ac.jp. Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2009.02.013.
Yung, Tetsu M.C., Narita, Takashi, Komori, Toshiharu, Yamaguchi, Yuki, & Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhanda@bio.titech.ac.jp. Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF. United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2009.02.013.
Yung, Tetsu M.C., Narita, Takashi, Komori, Toshiharu, Yamaguchi, Yuki, and Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhanda@bio.titech.ac.jp. 2009. "Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF". United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2009.02.013.
@article{osti_22209769,
title = {Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF},
author = {Yung, Tetsu M.C. and Narita, Takashi and Komori, Toshiharu and Yamaguchi, Yuki and Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhanda@bio.titech.ac.jp},
abstractNote = {Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a transcription factor discovered based on its biochemical activity to suppress transcription elongation, and has since been implicated in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. Besides its role in promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II during early stages of transcription, recently we found that it also plays important roles in the 3'-end processing of histone mRNA. Furthermore, NELF has been found to form a distinct subnuclear structure, which we named NELF bodies. These recent developments point to a wide range of potential functions for NELF, and, as most studies on NELF thus far had been carried out in vitro, here, we prepared a complete set of fusion protein constructs of NELF subunits and carried out a general cell biological study of the intracellular dynamics of NELF. Our data show that NELF subunits exhibit highly specific subcellular localizations, such as in NELF bodies or in midbodies, and some shuttle actively between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We further show that loss of NELF from cells can lead to enlarged and/or multiple nuclei. This work serves as a foundation and starting point for further cell biological investigations of NELF in the future.},
doi = {10.1016/J.YEXCR.2009.02.013},
journal = {Experimental Cell Research},
number = 10,
volume = 315,
place = {United States},
year = 2009,
month = 6
}
  • The transcription rate of immediate early genes (IEGs) is controlled directly by transcription elongation factors at the transcription elongation step. Negative elongation factor (NELF) and 5,6-dichloro-1-{beta}-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) stall RNA polymerase II (pol II) soon after transcription initiation. Upon induction of IEG transcription, DSIF is converted into an accelerator for pol II elongation. To address whether and how NELF as well as DSIF controls overall IEG transcription, its expression was reduced using stable RNA interference in GH4C1 cells. NELF knock-down reduced thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced transcription of the IEGs c-fos, MKP-1, and junB. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-inducedmore » transcription of these IEGs was unaltered or even slightly increased by NELF knock-down. Thus, stable knock-down of NELF affects IEG transcription stimulation-specifically. Conversely, DSIF knock-down reduced both TRH- and EGF-induced transcription of the three IEGs. Interestingly, TRH-induced activation of the MAP kinase pathway, a pathway essential for transcription of the three IEGs, was down-regulated by NELF knock-down. Thus, stable knock-down of NELF, by modulating intracellular signaling pathways, caused stimulation-specific loss of IEG transcription. These observations indicate that NELF controls overall IEG transcription via multiple mechanisms both directly and indirectly.« less
  • Genomic sequences for the large subunit of human RNA polymerase II corresponding to a part of the fifth exon were inserted into an expression vector at the carboxy-terminal end of the ..beta..-galactosidase gene. The in-frame construct produced a 125-kilodalton fusion protein, containing approximately 10 kilodaltons of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II and 116 kilodaltons of ..beta..-galactosidase. The purified bacterially produced fusion protein inhibited specific transcription from the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter, while ..beta..-galactosidase had no effect. The effect of the fusion protein was during RNA elongation, not at the level of initiation, resembling the faithfully initiatedmore » but incomplete transcripts produced with purified factors in the absence of SII. Similarly, monoclonal antibody 2-7B, which reacts with the RNA polymerase II region represented in the fusion protein, inhibited specific transcription at the level of elongation in a whole-cell extract. Both monoclonal antibody 2-7B and the fusion protein, although unable to inhibit purified RNA polymerase II in a nonspecific transcription assay, selectively blocked the stimulation elicited by transcription elongation factor SII on the activity of the purified enzyme in vitro. This suggests that the fusion protein traps the SII in nonstimulatory interactions and that anitibody 2-7B inhibits SII binding to RNA polymerase II. Thus, this suggests that an SII-binding contact required for specific RNA elongation resides within the fifth exon region of the largest RNA polymerase II subunit.« less
  • Transcription elongation factors assist RNA polymerase II through transcriptional blockades. The human transcriptional elongation factor SII or Transcription Elongation Factor A (TCEA) releases RNA polymerase II from transcriptional arrest and is encoded by a 2.5-kb intronless gene. Using PCR primers, verified by RT-PCR to amplify the authentic, transcriptionally active SII gene, this locus was mapped to human chromosome 3 by examination of a humari/rodent somatic cell hybrid panel. PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids with chromosome 3 translocations and FISH studies utilizing a human YAC clone containing the SII gene further refine the map position of this locus to humanmore » chromosome 3p22 {r_arrow} p21.3. Since another elongation factor, SIII, has been implicated in human carcinogenesis and since the interval within which the human SII gene maps is frequently deleted in certain cancers, elongation factor SII may therefore be considered a candidate gene for human malignancies involving 3p22 - p21.3. 29 refs., 2 figs.« less
  • The oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a potent transactivator of viral and cellular transcription. Here, we identified ELL2 as the sole transcription elongation factor to be specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-/Tax-transformed T-cells. Tax contributes to regulation of ELL2, since transient transfection of Tax increases ELL2 mRNA, Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter, and repression of Tax results in decrease of ELL2 in transformed T-lymphocytes. However, we also measured upregulation of ELL2 in HTLV-1-transformed cells exhibiting undetectable amounts of Tax, suggesting that ELL2 can still be maintained independent of continuous Tax expression. We further show that Taxmore » and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter, indicating that ELL2 cooperates with Tax in viral transactivation. This is supported by our findings that Tax and ELL2 accumulate in nuclear fractions and that they co-precipitate upon co-expression in transiently-transfected cells. Thus, upregulation of ELL2 could contribute to HTLV-1 gene regulation. - Highlights: • ELL2, a transcription elongation factor, is upregulated in HTLV-1-positive T-cells. • Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 interact in vivo.« less