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Title: Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

Abstract

Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22199647
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 381; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CHLORIDES; ELECTRONS; INFLAMMATION; MEMBRANES; NEUTROPHILS; OXIDASES; REVIEWS; TAMOXIFEN

Citation Formats

Salmon, Michael D., and Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2009.02.147.
Salmon, Michael D., & Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils. United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2009.02.147.
Salmon, Michael D., and Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk. 2009. "Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils". United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2009.02.147.
@article{osti_22199647,
title = {Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils},
author = {Salmon, Michael D. and Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk},
abstractNote = {Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.},
doi = {10.1016/J.BBRC.2009.02.147},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 4,
volume = 381,
place = {United States},
year = 2009,
month = 4
}
  • Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I{sub e}. In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 {mu}M), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibitedmore » both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.« less
  • Chloride channels activated by swell have important functions in many physiological processes. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is essential for host defence and it generates superoxide by transferring electrons from the donor NADPH to the acceptor O{sub 2}. This electron current, induces a depolarisation of the plasma membrane. In this study, I report that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the depolarisation induced by the NADPH oxidase. When a chloride conductance was activated by swelling, its inhibition by either 50 {mu}M NPPB or removing external chloride, depolarised the plasma membrane potential to +26 mV {+-} 3.1 (n = 4) andmore » +40 {+-} 1 mV (n = 4), respectively. These channels were partially inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor AEBSF (1 mM) and potently inhibited by ZnCl{sub 2} (3 mM). These currents were not activated by a phosphorylation step and elevations in intracellular calcium did not appear to activate chloride currents similar to those activated by swell.« less
  • Extracellular acidic pH-activated chloride channel I{sub Cl,acid}, has been characterized in HEK 293 cells and mammalian cardiac myocytes. This study was designed to characterize I{sub Cl,acid} in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs). The activation and deactivation of the current rapidly and repeatedly follows the change of the extracellular solution at pH 4.3, with the threshold pH 5.3. In addition, at very positive potentials, the current displays a time-dependent facilitation. pH-response relationship for I{sub Cl,acid} revealed that EC{sub 50} is pH 4.764 with a threshold pH value of pH 5.3 and nH of 14.545. The current can be blocked by themore » Cl{sup -} channel inhibitor DIDS (100 {mu}M). In summary, for the first time we report the presence of proton-activated, outwardly rectifying chloride channel in HUVECs. Because an acidic environment can develop in local myocardium under pathological conditions such as myocardial ischemia, I{sub Cl,acid} would play a role in regulation of EC function under these pathological conditions.« less
  • The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.
  • Activation of neutrophils by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is accompanied by an initial cytoplasmic acidification, followed by an alkalinizing phase due to Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ countertransport. The source of the acidification, which is fully expressed by activation with TPA in Na/sup +/-free or amiloride-containing media, was investigated. The acidification phase was detected also in degranulated and enucleated cytoplasts, ruling out a major contribution by the nucleus or secretory vesicles. Cytoplasmic acidification was found to be associated with an extracellular acidification, suggesting metabolic generation of H/sup +/. Two principal metabolic pathways are stimulated in activated neutrophils; the reduction of O/sub 2/ by NADPH-oxidasemore » and the hexose monophosphate shunt. A good correlation was found between the activity of these pathways and the changes in cytoplasmic pH. Inhibition of superoxide synthesis prevented the TPA-induced cytoplasmic acidification. Moreover, activation of the hexose monophosphate shunt with permeable NADPH-oxidizing agents (in the absence of TPA) also produced a cytoplasmic acidification. The results suggest that the cytoplasmic acidification induced by phorbol esters in neutrophils reflects accumulation of H/sup +/ liberated during the metabolic burst that follows activation.« less