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Title: PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR FLARE KERNEL OBSERVED BY HINODE AND SDO

Abstract

Flare kernels are compact features located in the solar chromosphere that are the sites of rapid heating and plasma upflow during the rise phase of flares. An example is presented from a M1.1 class flare in active region AR 11158 observed on 2011 February 16 07:44 UT for which the location of the upflow region seen by EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) can be precisely aligned to high spatial resolution images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). A string of bright flare kernels is found to be aligned with a ridge of strong magnetic field, and one kernel site is highlighted for which an upflow speed of Almost-Equal-To 400 km s{sup -1} is measured in lines formed at 10-30 MK. The line-of-sight magnetic field strength at this location is Almost-Equal-To 1000 G. Emission over a continuous range of temperatures down to the chromosphere is found, and the kernels have a similar morphology at all temperatures and are spatially coincident with sizes at the resolution limit of the AIA instrument ({approx}<400 km). For temperatures of 0.3-3.0 MK the EIS emission lines show multiple velocity components, with the dominantmore » component becoming more blueshifted with temperature from a redshift of 35 km s{sup -1} at 0.3 MK to a blueshift of 60 km s{sup -1} at 3.0 MK. Emission lines from 1.5-3.0 MK show a weak redshifted component at around 60-70 km s{sup -1} implying multi-directional flows at the kernel site. Significant non-thermal broadening corresponding to velocities of Almost-Equal-To 120 km s{sup -1} is found at 10-30 MK, and the electron density in the kernel, measured at 2 MK, is 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. Finally, the Fe XXIV {lambda}192.03/{lambda}255.11 ratio suggests that the EIS calibration has changed since launch, with the long wavelength channel less sensitive than the short wavelength channel by around a factor two.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)
  2. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
  3. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22167482
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 766; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CALIBRATION; CHROMOSPHERE; ELECTRON DENSITY; EMISSION; EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; IMAGES; KERNELS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; PLASMA; RED SHIFT; SOLAR FLARES; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; SPECTROMETERS; VELOCITY; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Young, P. R., Doschek, G. A., Warren, H. P., and Hara, H. PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR FLARE KERNEL OBSERVED BY HINODE AND SDO. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/127.
Young, P. R., Doschek, G. A., Warren, H. P., & Hara, H. PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR FLARE KERNEL OBSERVED BY HINODE AND SDO. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/127.
Young, P. R., Doschek, G. A., Warren, H. P., and Hara, H. 2013. "PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR FLARE KERNEL OBSERVED BY HINODE AND SDO". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/127.
@article{osti_22167482,
title = {PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR FLARE KERNEL OBSERVED BY HINODE AND SDO},
author = {Young, P. R. and Doschek, G. A. and Warren, H. P. and Hara, H.},
abstractNote = {Flare kernels are compact features located in the solar chromosphere that are the sites of rapid heating and plasma upflow during the rise phase of flares. An example is presented from a M1.1 class flare in active region AR 11158 observed on 2011 February 16 07:44 UT for which the location of the upflow region seen by EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) can be precisely aligned to high spatial resolution images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). A string of bright flare kernels is found to be aligned with a ridge of strong magnetic field, and one kernel site is highlighted for which an upflow speed of Almost-Equal-To 400 km s{sup -1} is measured in lines formed at 10-30 MK. The line-of-sight magnetic field strength at this location is Almost-Equal-To 1000 G. Emission over a continuous range of temperatures down to the chromosphere is found, and the kernels have a similar morphology at all temperatures and are spatially coincident with sizes at the resolution limit of the AIA instrument ({approx}<400 km). For temperatures of 0.3-3.0 MK the EIS emission lines show multiple velocity components, with the dominant component becoming more blueshifted with temperature from a redshift of 35 km s{sup -1} at 0.3 MK to a blueshift of 60 km s{sup -1} at 3.0 MK. Emission lines from 1.5-3.0 MK show a weak redshifted component at around 60-70 km s{sup -1} implying multi-directional flows at the kernel site. Significant non-thermal broadening corresponding to velocities of Almost-Equal-To 120 km s{sup -1} is found at 10-30 MK, and the electron density in the kernel, measured at 2 MK, is 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. Finally, the Fe XXIV {lambda}192.03/{lambda}255.11 ratio suggests that the EIS calibration has changed since launch, with the long wavelength channel less sensitive than the short wavelength channel by around a factor two.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/127},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 766,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 4
}
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