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Title: Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint

Abstract

Cracking in an electron beam weld of titanium to stainless steel occurred during the cooling process because of internal thermal stress. Using a copper filler metal, a crack free joint was obtained, which had a tensile strength of 310 MPa. To determine the reasons for cracking in the Ti/Fe joint and the function of the copper filler metal on the improvement of the cracking resistance of the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, the microstructures of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cracking susceptibilities of the joints were evaluated with microhardness tests on the cross-sections. In addition, microindentation tests were used to compare the brittleness of the intermetallics in the welds. The results showed that the Ti/Fe joint was characterized by continuously distributed brittle intermetallics such as TiFe and TiFe(Cr){sub 2} with high hardness ({approx} 1200 HV). For the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, most of the weld consisted of a soft solid solution of copper with dispersed TiFe intermetallics. The transition region between the weld and the titanium alloy was made up of a relatively soft Ti-Cu intermetallic layer with a lower hardness ({approx} 500 HV). The formation of soft phases reduced the cracking susceptibility of the joint.more » - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Fe joint cracked for the brittleness and residual stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Cu/Fe joint with tensile strength of 310 MPa was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu diluted Ti and Fe contents in weld and separated the TiFe{sub 2} into individual blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial hard Ti-Fe compounds were replaced by soft Ti-Cu compounds in the weld. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of solid solution of copper formed in the weld.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [2]
  1. Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China)
  2. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)
  3. (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22163149
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Materials Characterization
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 73; Journal Issue: Complete; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1044-5803
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BRITTLENESS; COPPER; CROSS SECTIONS; ELECTRON BEAMS; FILLER METALS; MICROHARDNESS; MICROSTRUCTURE; OPTICAL MICROSCOPY; RESIDUAL STRESSES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOLID SOLUTIONS; STAINLESS STEELS; TENSILE PROPERTIES; THERMAL STRESSES; TITANIUM; TITANIUM ALLOYS; WELDED JOINTS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com, Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com, Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, and Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com. Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2012.08.004.
Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com, Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com, Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, & Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com. Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2012.08.004.
Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com, Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com, Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, and Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com. Thu . "Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2012.08.004.
@article{osti_22163149,
title = {Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint},
author = {Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com and Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com and Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn and State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 and Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com},
abstractNote = {Cracking in an electron beam weld of titanium to stainless steel occurred during the cooling process because of internal thermal stress. Using a copper filler metal, a crack free joint was obtained, which had a tensile strength of 310 MPa. To determine the reasons for cracking in the Ti/Fe joint and the function of the copper filler metal on the improvement of the cracking resistance of the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, the microstructures of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cracking susceptibilities of the joints were evaluated with microhardness tests on the cross-sections. In addition, microindentation tests were used to compare the brittleness of the intermetallics in the welds. The results showed that the Ti/Fe joint was characterized by continuously distributed brittle intermetallics such as TiFe and TiFe(Cr){sub 2} with high hardness ({approx} 1200 HV). For the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, most of the weld consisted of a soft solid solution of copper with dispersed TiFe intermetallics. The transition region between the weld and the titanium alloy was made up of a relatively soft Ti-Cu intermetallic layer with a lower hardness ({approx} 500 HV). The formation of soft phases reduced the cracking susceptibility of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Fe joint cracked for the brittleness and residual stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Cu/Fe joint with tensile strength of 310 MPa was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu diluted Ti and Fe contents in weld and separated the TiFe{sub 2} into individual blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial hard Ti-Fe compounds were replaced by soft Ti-Cu compounds in the weld. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of solid solution of copper formed in the weld.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2012.08.004},
journal = {Materials Characterization},
issn = {1044-5803},
number = Complete,
volume = 73,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}