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Title: Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population

Abstract

The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01;more » in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China)
  2. Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)
  3. (Sweden)
  4. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)
  5. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22149204
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0013-9351
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BLOOD; CADMIUM; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CREATININE; MINERALS; OSTEOPOROSIS; RICE; SKELETON; TRITIUM RECOVERY; URINE; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Chen, Xiao, Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn, Jin, Taiyi, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Akesson, Agneta, Bergdahl, Ingvar A., Lei, Lijian, Weng, Shifang, Liang, Yihuai, and Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.2009.06.003.
Chen, Xiao, Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn, Jin, Taiyi, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Akesson, Agneta, Bergdahl, Ingvar A., Lei, Lijian, Weng, Shifang, Liang, Yihuai, & Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population. United States. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.2009.06.003.
Chen, Xiao, Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn, Jin, Taiyi, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Akesson, Agneta, Bergdahl, Ingvar A., Lei, Lijian, Weng, Shifang, Liang, Yihuai, and Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea. Thu . "Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population". United States. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.2009.06.003.
@article{osti_22149204,
title = {Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population},
author = {Chen, Xiao and Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn and Jin, Taiyi and Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea and Akesson, Agneta and Bergdahl, Ingvar A. and Lei, Lijian and Weng, Shifang and Liang, Yihuai and Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea},
abstractNote = {The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.},
doi = {10.1016/J.ENVRES.2009.06.003},
journal = {Environmental Research},
issn = {0013-9351},
number = 7,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {10}
}