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Title: THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER

Abstract

We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2]; ; ;  [3]; ; ; ; ;  [4]; ; ;  [5];  [6];  [7]; ;  [8];  [9] more »; « less
  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)
  3. Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)
  4. Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  5. Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)
  6. Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
  7. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
  8. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)
  9. Materion Barr Precision Optics and Thin Film Coatings, Westford, MA 01886 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22136589
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series; Journal Volume: 207; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BRIGHTNESS; CAMERAS; COSMIC DUST; FRAUNHOFER LINES; INFRARED SPECTROMETERS; LINE WIDTHS; MORPHOLOGY; NEAR INFRARED RADIATION; OPTICS; PHOTOMETRY; RESOLUTION; SENSITIVITY; ZODIACAL LIGHT

Citation Formats

Korngut, P. M., Bock, J., Renbarger, T., Keating, B., Arai, T., Matsumoto, T., Matsuura, S., Battle, J., Hristov, V., Lanz, A., Levenson, L. R., Mason, P., Brown, S. W., Lykke, K. R., Smith, A. W., Cooray, A., Kim, M. G., Lee, D. H., Nam, U. W., Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu, and and others. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/207/2/34.
Korngut, P. M., Bock, J., Renbarger, T., Keating, B., Arai, T., Matsumoto, T., Matsuura, S., Battle, J., Hristov, V., Lanz, A., Levenson, L. R., Mason, P., Brown, S. W., Lykke, K. R., Smith, A. W., Cooray, A., Kim, M. G., Lee, D. H., Nam, U. W., Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu, & and others. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER. United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/207/2/34.
Korngut, P. M., Bock, J., Renbarger, T., Keating, B., Arai, T., Matsumoto, T., Matsuura, S., Battle, J., Hristov, V., Lanz, A., Levenson, L. R., Mason, P., Brown, S. W., Lykke, K. R., Smith, A. W., Cooray, A., Kim, M. G., Lee, D. H., Nam, U. W., Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu, and and others. Thu . "THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER". United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/207/2/34.
@article{osti_22136589,
title = {THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER},
author = {Korngut, P. M. and Bock, J. and Renbarger, T. and Keating, B. and Arai, T. and Matsumoto, T. and Matsuura, S. and Battle, J. and Hristov, V. and Lanz, A. and Levenson, L. R. and Mason, P. and Brown, S. W. and Lykke, K. R. and Smith, A. W. and Cooray, A. and Kim, M. G. and Lee, D. H. and Nam, U. W. and Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.},
doi = {10.1088/0067-0049/207/2/34},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series},
number = 2,
volume = 207,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Thu Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, andmore » electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.« less
  • The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, andmore » electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.« less
  • We have developed and characterized an imaging instrument to measure the spatial properties of the diffuse near-infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) in a search for fluctuations from z > 6 galaxies during the epoch of reionization. The instrument is part of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), designed to observe the EBL above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The imaging instrument incorporates a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign field of view to measure fluctuations over the predicted peak of the spatial power spectrum at 10 arcmin, and 7'' Multiplication-Sign 7'' pixels, to remove lower redshift galaxies tomore » a depth sufficient to reduce the low-redshift galaxy clustering foreground below instrumental sensitivity. The imaging instrument employs two cameras with {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx} 0.5 bandpasses centered at 1.1 {mu}m and 1.6 {mu}m to spectrally discriminate reionization extragalactic background fluctuations from local foreground fluctuations. CIBER operates at wavelengths where the electromagnetic spectrum of the reionization extragalactic background is thought to peak, and complements fluctuation measurements by AKARI and Spitzer at longer wavelengths. We have characterized the instrument in the laboratory, including measurements of the sensitivity, flat-field response, stray light performance, and noise properties. Several modifications were made to the instrument following a first flight in 2009 February. The instrument performed to specifications in three subsequent flights, and the scientific data are now being analyzed.« less
  • The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nWmore » m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}« less
  • We report measurements of the diffuse galactic light (DGL) spectrum in the near-infrared, spanning the wavelength range 0.95–1.65 μm by the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment. Using the low-resolution spectrometer calibrated for absolute spectro-photometry, we acquired long-slit spectral images of the total diffuse sky brightness toward six high-latitude fields spread over four sounding rocket flights. To separate the DGL spectrum from the total sky brightness, we correlated the spectral images with a 100 μm intensity map, which traces the dust column density in optically thin regions. The measured DGL spectrum shows no resolved features and is consistent with other DGL measurementsmore » in the optical and at near-infrared wavelengths longer than 1.8 μm. Our result implies that the continuum is consistently reproduced by models of scattered starlight in the Rayleigh scattering regime with a few large grains.« less