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Title: A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

Abstract

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife sitingmore » guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied index to 49 EIA documents and identified high variation in assessment quality for wind energy developments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the reviewed EIAs, 66% provided inadequate preconstruction avian and bat survey information.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States)
  2. Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northern Arizona University, 2112 S Huffer Ln P.O. Box 15600, Flagstaff, AZ, 860011 (United States)
  3. Political Science Program, Department of Politics and International Affairs, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15036, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22131083
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Impact Assessment Review; Journal Volume: 38; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; BIRDS; ECOSYSTEMS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; LAWSUITS; RECOMMENDATIONS; REVIEWS; SPECIES DIVERSITY; US NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT

Citation Formats

Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu, Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu, Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu, and Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/J.EIAR.2012.07.005.
Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu, Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu, Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu, & Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments. United States. doi:10.1016/J.EIAR.2012.07.005.
Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu, Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu, Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu, and Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu. Tue . "A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments". United States. doi:10.1016/J.EIAR.2012.07.005.
@article{osti_22131083,
title = {A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments},
author = {Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu and Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu and Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu and Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu},
abstractNote = {The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied index to 49 EIA documents and identified high variation in assessment quality for wind energy developments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the reviewed EIAs, 66% provided inadequate preconstruction avian and bat survey information.},
doi = {10.1016/J.EIAR.2012.07.005},
journal = {Environmental Impact Assessment Review},
number = ,
volume = 38,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2013},
month = {Tue Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2013}
}
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