skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

Abstract

We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Ly{alpha} absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg{sup 2} of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = {lambda}/FWHM {approx} 2000. Building on proven heritage,more » the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < {lambda} < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2];  [3]; ;  [4];  [5]; ; ;  [6]; ;  [7]; ;  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11] more »; « less
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  2. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
  3. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
  4. Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  5. UC Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 375 Interdisciplinary Sciences Building (ISB) Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
  6. Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195 (United States)
  7. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)
  8. Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)
  9. Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
  10. Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)
  11. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22122888
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online); Journal Volume: 146; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; APERTURES; BARYONS; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; COLLIMATORS; COSMOLOGY; EQUATIONS OF STATE; GALAXIES; LIMITING VALUES; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; OSCILLATIONS; PERFORMANCE; QUASARS; RED SHIFT; SPECTRA; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Smee, Stephen A., Barkhouser, Robert H., Gunn, James E., Carr, Michael A., Lupton, Robert H., Loomis, Craig, Uomoto, Alan, Roe, Natalie, Schlegel, David, Rockosi, Constance M., Leger, French, Owen, Russell, Anderson, Lauren, Dawson, Kyle S., Olmstead, Matthew D., Brinkmann, Jon, Long, Dan, Honscheid, Klaus, Harding, Paul, Annis, James, E-mail: smee@pha.jhu.edu, and and others. THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/2/32.
Smee, Stephen A., Barkhouser, Robert H., Gunn, James E., Carr, Michael A., Lupton, Robert H., Loomis, Craig, Uomoto, Alan, Roe, Natalie, Schlegel, David, Rockosi, Constance M., Leger, French, Owen, Russell, Anderson, Lauren, Dawson, Kyle S., Olmstead, Matthew D., Brinkmann, Jon, Long, Dan, Honscheid, Klaus, Harding, Paul, Annis, James, E-mail: smee@pha.jhu.edu, & and others. THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/2/32.
Smee, Stephen A., Barkhouser, Robert H., Gunn, James E., Carr, Michael A., Lupton, Robert H., Loomis, Craig, Uomoto, Alan, Roe, Natalie, Schlegel, David, Rockosi, Constance M., Leger, French, Owen, Russell, Anderson, Lauren, Dawson, Kyle S., Olmstead, Matthew D., Brinkmann, Jon, Long, Dan, Honscheid, Klaus, Harding, Paul, Annis, James, E-mail: smee@pha.jhu.edu, and and others. Thu . "THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/2/32.
@article{osti_22122888,
title = {THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY},
author = {Smee, Stephen A. and Barkhouser, Robert H. and Gunn, James E. and Carr, Michael A. and Lupton, Robert H. and Loomis, Craig and Uomoto, Alan and Roe, Natalie and Schlegel, David and Rockosi, Constance M. and Leger, French and Owen, Russell and Anderson, Lauren and Dawson, Kyle S. and Olmstead, Matthew D. and Brinkmann, Jon and Long, Dan and Honscheid, Klaus and Harding, Paul and Annis, James, E-mail: smee@pha.jhu.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Ly{alpha} absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg{sup 2} of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = {lambda}/FWHM {approx} 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < {lambda} < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/146/2/32},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 146,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Thu Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5-m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measuremore » redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyman-alpha absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 square degrees of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the Universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near ultraviolet to the near infrared, with a resolving power R = \lambda/FWHM ~ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 < \lambda < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.« less
  • The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z {approx} 0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z {approx} 2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refinedmore » with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T{sub eff} < 5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H] > -0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SEGUE-2. The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the APOGEE along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in 2014 December.« less
  • The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z=0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z=2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperaturemore » estimates for stars with T_eff<5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SDSS-III Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-2 (SEGUE-2). The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in December 2014.« less
  • We analyze the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature in the two-point correlation function {xi} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample (0.16 < z < 0.47). By defining a narrow line-of-sight region, r{sub p} < 5.5 h {sup -1} Mpc, where r{sub p} is the transverse separation component, we measure a strong excess of clustering at {approx}110 h {sup -1} Mpc, as previously reported in the literature. We also test these results in an alternative coordinate system, by defining the line of sight as {theta} < 3{sup 0}, where {theta} is the opening angle. This clustering excessmore » appears much stronger than the feature in the better-measured monopole. A fiducial {Lambda}CDM nonlinear model in redshift space predicts a much weaker signature. We use realistic mock catalogs to model the expected signal and noise. We find that the line-of-sight measurements can be explained well by our mocks as well as by a featureless {xi} = 0. We conclude that there is no convincing evidence that the strong clustering measurement is the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature. We also evaluate how detectable such a signal would be in the upcoming Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) LRG volume. Mock LRG catalogs (z < 0.6) suggest that (1) the narrow line-of-sight cylinder and cone defined above probably will not reveal a detectable acoustic feature in BOSS; (2) a clustering measurement as high as that in the current sample can be ruled out (or confirmed) at a high confidence level using a BOSS-sized data set; (3) an analysis with wider angular cuts, which provide better signal-to-noise ratios, can nevertheless be used to compare line-of-sight and transverse distances, and thereby constrain the expansion rate H(z) and diameter distance D{sub A}(z).« less