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Title: Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering

Abstract

Purpose: Grid artifacts are caused when using the antiscatter grid in obtaining digital x-ray images. In this paper, research on grid artifact reduction techniques is conducted especially for the direct detectors, which are based on amorphous selenium. Methods: In order to analyze and reduce the grid artifacts, the authors consider a multiplicative grid image model and propose a homomorphic filtering technique. For minimal damage due to filters, which are used to suppress the grid artifacts, rotated grids with respect to the sampling direction are employed, and min-max optimization problems for searching optimal grid frequencies and angles for given sampling frequencies are established. The authors then propose algorithms for the grid artifact reduction based on the band-stop filters as well as low-pass filters. Results: The proposed algorithms are experimentally tested for digital x-ray images, which are obtained from direct detectors with the rotated grids, and are compared with other algorithms. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can successfully reduce the grid artifacts for direct detectors. Conclusions: By employing the homomorphic filtering technique, the authors can considerably suppress the strong grid artifacts with relatively narrow-bandwidth filters compared to the normal filtering case. Using rotated grids also significantly reduces the ringing artifact.more » Furthermore, for specific grid frequencies and angles, the authors can use simple homomorphic low-pass filters in the spatial domain, and thus alleviate the grid artifacts with very low implementation complexity.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Electronics Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. R and D Center, DRTECH Co., Gyeonggi-do 463-782 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22121027
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ALGORITHMS; AMINO ACIDS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; FILTERS; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; OPTIMIZATION

Citation Formats

Kim, Dong Sik, and Lee, Sanggyun. Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4807085.
Kim, Dong Sik, & Lee, Sanggyun. Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4807085.
Kim, Dong Sik, and Lee, Sanggyun. Sat . "Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4807085.
@article{osti_22121027,
title = {Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering},
author = {Kim, Dong Sik and Lee, Sanggyun},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Grid artifacts are caused when using the antiscatter grid in obtaining digital x-ray images. In this paper, research on grid artifact reduction techniques is conducted especially for the direct detectors, which are based on amorphous selenium. Methods: In order to analyze and reduce the grid artifacts, the authors consider a multiplicative grid image model and propose a homomorphic filtering technique. For minimal damage due to filters, which are used to suppress the grid artifacts, rotated grids with respect to the sampling direction are employed, and min-max optimization problems for searching optimal grid frequencies and angles for given sampling frequencies are established. The authors then propose algorithms for the grid artifact reduction based on the band-stop filters as well as low-pass filters. Results: The proposed algorithms are experimentally tested for digital x-ray images, which are obtained from direct detectors with the rotated grids, and are compared with other algorithms. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can successfully reduce the grid artifacts for direct detectors. Conclusions: By employing the homomorphic filtering technique, the authors can considerably suppress the strong grid artifacts with relatively narrow-bandwidth filters compared to the normal filtering case. Using rotated grids also significantly reduces the ringing artifact. Furthermore, for specific grid frequencies and angles, the authors can use simple homomorphic low-pass filters in the spatial domain, and thus alleviate the grid artifacts with very low implementation complexity.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4807085},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Sat Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Purpose: To use phantom and simulation experiments to relate technique factors, patient size and antiscatter grid use to image quality in portable digital radiography (DR), in light of advancements in detector design and image processing. Methods: Image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on a portable DR system (MobileDaRt Evolution, Shimadzu) was measured by imaging four aluminum inserts of varying thickness, superimposed on a Lucite slab phantom using a pediatric abdominal protocol. Three thicknesses of Lucite were used: 6.1cm, 12cm, and 18.2cm, with both 55 and 65 kVp beams. The mAs was set so that detector entrance exposure (DEE) was matched between kVpmore » values. Each technique and phantom was used with and without an antiscatter grid (focused linear grid embedded in aluminum with an 8:1 ratio). The CNR-improvement-factor was then used to determine the thickness- and technique-dependent appropriateness of grid use. Finally, the same experiment was performed via Monte Carlo simulation, integrating incident energy fluence at each detector pixel, so that effects of detector design and image processing could be isolated from physical factors upstream of the detector. Results: The physical phantom experiment demonstrated a clear improvement for the lower tube voltage (55kVp), along with substantial CNR benefits with grid use for 12–18cm phantoms. Neither trend was evident with Monte Carlo, suggesting that suboptimal quantum-detection-efficiency and automated grid-removal could explain trends in kVp and grid use, respectively. Conclusion: Physical experiments demonstrate marked improvement in CNR when using a grid for phantoms of 12 and 18cm Lucite thickness (above ∼10cm soft-tissue equivalent). This benefit is likely due to image processing, as this result was not seen with Monte Carlo. The impact of image processing on image resolution should also be investigated, and the CNR benefit of low kVp and grid use should be weighed against the increased exposure time necessary to achieve adequate DEE.« less
  • Purpose: Demonstrate the effectiveness of an anti-scatter grid artifact minimization method by removing the grid-line artifacts for three different grids when used with a high resolution CMOS detector. Method: Three different stationary x-ray grids were used with a high resolution CMOS x-ray detector (Dexela 1207, 75 µm pixels, sensitivity area 11.5cm × 6.5cm) to image a simulated artery block phantom (Nuclear Associates, Stenosis/Aneurysm Artery Block 76–705) combined with a frontal head phantom used as the scattering source. The x-ray parameters were 98kVp, 200mA, and 16ms for all grids. With all the three grids, two images were acquired: the first formore » a scatter-less flat field including the grid and the second of the object with the grid which may still have some scatter transmission. Because scatter has a low spatial frequency distribution, it was represented by an estimated constant value as an initial approximation and subtracted from the image of the object with grid before dividing by an average frame of the grid flat-field with no scatter. The constant value was iteratively changed to minimize residual grid-line artifact. This artifact minimization process was used for all the three grids. Results: Anti-scatter grid lines artifacts were successfully eliminated in all the three final images taken with the three different grids. The image contrast and CNR were also compared before and after the correction, and also compared with those from the image of the object when no grid was used. The corrected images showed an increase in CNR of approximately 28%, 33% and 25% for the three grids, as compared to the images when no grid at all was used. Conclusion: Anti-scatter grid-artifact minimization works effectively irrespective of the specifications of the grid when it is used with a high spatial resolution detector. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less
  • The authors believe that a dedicated parallel computer system can represent an effective and flexible approach to the problem of list mode acquisition and reconstruction of digital radiographic images obtained with a double-sided silicon microstrip detector. They present a Transputer-based implementation of a parallel system for the data acquisition and image reconstruction from a silicon crystal with 200[mu]m read-out pitch. They are currently developing a prototype of the system connected to a detector with a 10mm[sup 2] sensitive area.
  • Purpose: Anti-scatter grid-line artifacts are more prominent for high-resolution x-ray detectors since the fraction of a pixel blocked by the grid septa is large. Direct logarithmic subtraction of the artifact pattern is limited by residual scattered radiation and we investigate an iterative method for scatter correction. Methods: A stationary Smit-Rοntgen anti-scatter grid was used with a high resolution Dexela 1207 CMOS X-ray detector (75 µm pixel size) to image an artery block (Nuclear Associates, Model 76-705) placed within a uniform head equivalent phantom as the scattering source. The image of the phantom was divided by a flat-field image obtained withoutmore » scatter but with the grid to eliminate grid-line artifacts. Constant scatter values were subtracted from the phantom image before dividing by the averaged flat-field-with-grid image. The standard deviation of pixel values for a fixed region of the resultant images with different subtracted scatter values provided a measure of the remaining grid-line artifacts. Results: A plot of the standard deviation of image pixel values versus the subtracted scatter value shows that the image structure noise reaches a minimum before going up again as the scatter value is increased. This minimum corresponds to a minimization of the grid-line artifacts as demonstrated in line profile plots obtained through each of the images perpendicular to the grid lines. Artifact-free images of the artery block were obtained with the optimal scatter value obtained by this iterative approach. Conclusion: Residual scatter subtraction can provide improved grid-line artifact elimination when using the flat-field with grid “subtraction” technique. The standard deviation of image pixel values can be used to determine the optimal scatter value to subtract to obtain a minimization of grid line artifacts with high resolution x-ray imaging detectors. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less
  • Artifacts are observed in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstructions due to the small number of projections and the narrow angular range that are typically employed in tomosynthesis imaging. In this work, we investigate the reconstruction artifacts that are caused by high-attenuation features in breast and develop several artifact reduction methods based on a 'voting strategy'. The voting strategy identifies the projection(s) that would introduce artifacts to a voxel and rejects the projection(s) when reconstructing the voxel. Four approaches to the voting strategy were compared, including projection segmentation, maximum contribution deduction, one-step classification, and iterative classification. The projection segmentation method, basedmore » on segmentation of high-attenuation features from the projections, effectively reduces artifacts caused by metal and large calcifications that can be reliably detected and segmented from projections. The other three methods are based on the observation that contributions from artifact-inducing projections have higher value than those from normal projections. These methods attempt to identify the projection(s) that would cause artifacts by comparing contributions from different projections. Among the three methods, the iterative classification method provides the best artifact reduction; however, it can generate many false positive classifications that degrade the image quality. The maximum contribution deduction method and one-step classification method both reduce artifacts well from small calcifications, although the performance of artifact reduction is slightly better with the one-step classification. The combination of one-step classification and projection segmentation removes artifacts from both large and small calcifications.« less