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Title: Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

Abstract

Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energeticmore » Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3]
  1. Department of Physics (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)
  2. (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
  3. (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)
  4. (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
  5. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22099112
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2012 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0734-2101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALUMINIUM IONS; ALUMINIUM NITRIDES; ARGON IONS; CRYSTAL GROWTH; CUBIC LATTICES; GRAIN ORIENTATION; ION BEAMS; MAGNETRONS; METALS; NANOSTRUCTURES; PLASMA; POINT DEFECTS; PRESSURE RANGE GIGA PA; PULSES; SODIUM CHLORIDES; SOLUBILITY; SPUTTERING; SUBSTRATES; THIN FILMS; TITANIUM COMPOUNDS

Citation Formats

Greczynski, Grzegorz, Lu Jun, Jensen, Jens, Petrov, Ivan, Greene, Joseph E., Bolz, Stephan, Koelker, Werner, Schiffers, Christoph, Lemmer, Oliver, Hultman, Lars, Department of Physics, Department of Physics, Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen, and Department of Physics. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4750485.
Greczynski, Grzegorz, Lu Jun, Jensen, Jens, Petrov, Ivan, Greene, Joseph E., Bolz, Stephan, Koelker, Werner, Schiffers, Christoph, Lemmer, Oliver, Hultman, Lars, Department of Physics, Department of Physics, Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen, & Department of Physics. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4750485.
Greczynski, Grzegorz, Lu Jun, Jensen, Jens, Petrov, Ivan, Greene, Joseph E., Bolz, Stephan, Koelker, Werner, Schiffers, Christoph, Lemmer, Oliver, Hultman, Lars, Department of Physics, Department of Physics, Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen, and Department of Physics. Thu . "Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4750485.
@article{osti_22099112,
title = {Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias},
author = {Greczynski, Grzegorz and Lu Jun and Jensen, Jens and Petrov, Ivan and Greene, Joseph E. and Bolz, Stephan and Koelker, Werner and Schiffers, Christoph and Lemmer, Oliver and Hultman, Lars and Department of Physics and Department of Physics and Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 and CemeCon AG, Adenauerstr. 20 A4, D-52146 Wurselen and Department of Physics},
abstractNote = {Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4750485},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
issn = {0734-2101},
number = 6,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}