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Title: Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides

Abstract

Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22099108
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2012 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0734-2101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANIONS; CALIBRATION; DEPOSITION; ENERGY SPECTRA; INDIUM; ION BEAM TARGETS; MAGNESIUM; MAGNETRONS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; OXIDES; OXYGEN IONS; RADIATION EFFECTS; SPUTTERING; THIN FILMS; TIN; TITANIUM; ZINC

Citation Formats

Welzel, Thomas, and Ellmer, Klaus. Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4762815.
Welzel, Thomas, & Ellmer, Klaus. Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4762815.
Welzel, Thomas, and Ellmer, Klaus. Thu . "Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4762815.
@article{osti_22099108,
title = {Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides},
author = {Welzel, Thomas and Ellmer, Klaus},
abstractNote = {Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4762815},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
issn = {0734-2101},
number = 6,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}