# Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations

## Abstract

Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k{sub Q} factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k{sub Q} factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k{sub Q} factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V{sub cyl} which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V{sub cyl}: (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a givenmore »

- Authors:

- Departement de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22099084

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Journal Name:
- Medical Physics

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0094-2405

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BEAMS; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; DOSIMETRY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MODULATION; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SENSITIVITY

### Citation Formats

```
Bouchard, Hugo.
```*Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations*. United States: N. p., 2012.
Web. doi:10.1118/1.4757920.

```
Bouchard, Hugo.
```*Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations*. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4757920.

```
Bouchard, Hugo. Thu .
"Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4757920.
```

```
@article{osti_22099084,
```

title = {Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations},

author = {Bouchard, Hugo},

abstractNote = {Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k{sub Q} factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k{sub Q} factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k{sub Q} factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V{sub cyl} which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V{sub cyl}: (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V{sub cyl}, no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing that k{sub Q} factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries are close to unity under specific conditions. The theoretical limit k{sub Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}=1 is determined based on the property of PCSR deliveries to provide a uniform dose in the target volume. The present approach explains recent experimental observations and proposes ideal conditions for IMRT reference dosimetry. The result of this study could potentially serve as a theoretical basis for reference dosimetry of composite IMRT beam deliveries or for routine IMRT quality assurance.},

doi = {10.1118/1.4757920},

journal = {Medical Physics},

issn = {0094-2405},

number = 11,

volume = 39,

place = {United States},

year = {2012},

month = {11}

}