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Title: Preliminary investigations for the option to use fast uniform scanning with compensators on a gantry designed for IMPT

Abstract

Purpose: In this experimental study, the authors explored the possibility to deliver the dose for proton therapy with fast uniform scanning on a gantry primarily designed for the delivery of conformal beam scanning and IMPT. The uniform scanning submode has been realized without equipment modifications by using the same small pencil beam used for conformal scanning, resulting in reduced realization costs. Uniform scanning has recently been adopted in a few proton therapy centers, as a basic beam delivery solution, and as an alternative to the use of scattering foils. The option to use such a mode to mimic scattering on a full-fledged scanning gantry could be of interest for treating some specific indications and as a possible solution for treating moving targets. Methods: Uniform iso-energy dose layers were painted by fast magnetic scanning alternated with fast energy changes with the gantry beam line. The layers were stacked and repainted appropriately to produce homogeneous three-dimensional dose distributions. A collimator/compensator was used to adjust the dose to coincide laterally/distally with the target volume. In addition, they applied volumetric repainting, since they are confident that this will further mitigate the effects of organ motion as compared with the presently used clinical scanning solutions.more » With the approach presented in this paper, they can profit from the higher flexibility of the scanning system to obtain additional advantages. For instance the shape of the energy layers can be adjusted to the projected target shape in order to reduce treatment time and neutrons produced in the collimator. The shape of the proximal layers can be shrunk, according to the cross section of the target at the corresponding range. This provides variable range modulation (proximal conformity) while standard scattering only provides fixed range modulation with unnecessary 100% dose proximal to the target. The field-specific hardware for a spherical target volume was mounted on the Gantry 2 nozzle. One field with proximal field size shrinking and one without, each of 1 Gy, were delivered. The dose distributions at different depths were recorded as CCD images of a scintillating screen. Results: The time to scan the volume once was about 4 s and the total delivery time was approximately 30 s. For the field with proximal conformity, dose sparing of up to 25% was measured in the region proximal to the target. A repainting capability of 48 times was achieved on the most distal layer. The proximal layers were repainted more due to the contribution of the plateau dose from the deeper layers. Conclusions: The flexibility of a fast scanning gantry with very fast energy changes can easily provide beam delivery by uniform layer stacking with a significant degree of volumetric repainting and with the benefit of a dose reduction proximal to the target volume.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232, Switzerland and ETH, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland)
  2. (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22098622
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Medical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 38; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0094-2405
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BEAMS; COLLIMATORS; CROSS SECTIONS; DOSIMETRY; EQUIPMENT; FLEXIBILITY; IMAGES; LAYERS; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; MODULATION; NEUTRONS; ORGANS; PROTONS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SCATTERING; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; SULFUR 30; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Zenklusen, Silvan M., Pedroni, Eros, Meer, David, Bula, Christian, Safai, Sairos, and Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232. Preliminary investigations for the option to use fast uniform scanning with compensators on a gantry designed for IMPT. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1118/1.3626483.
Zenklusen, Silvan M., Pedroni, Eros, Meer, David, Bula, Christian, Safai, Sairos, & Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232. Preliminary investigations for the option to use fast uniform scanning with compensators on a gantry designed for IMPT. United States. doi:10.1118/1.3626483.
Zenklusen, Silvan M., Pedroni, Eros, Meer, David, Bula, Christian, Safai, Sairos, and Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232. Thu . "Preliminary investigations for the option to use fast uniform scanning with compensators on a gantry designed for IMPT". United States. doi:10.1118/1.3626483.
@article{osti_22098622,
title = {Preliminary investigations for the option to use fast uniform scanning with compensators on a gantry designed for IMPT},
author = {Zenklusen, Silvan M. and Pedroni, Eros and Meer, David and Bula, Christian and Safai, Sairos and Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In this experimental study, the authors explored the possibility to deliver the dose for proton therapy with fast uniform scanning on a gantry primarily designed for the delivery of conformal beam scanning and IMPT. The uniform scanning submode has been realized without equipment modifications by using the same small pencil beam used for conformal scanning, resulting in reduced realization costs. Uniform scanning has recently been adopted in a few proton therapy centers, as a basic beam delivery solution, and as an alternative to the use of scattering foils. The option to use such a mode to mimic scattering on a full-fledged scanning gantry could be of interest for treating some specific indications and as a possible solution for treating moving targets. Methods: Uniform iso-energy dose layers were painted by fast magnetic scanning alternated with fast energy changes with the gantry beam line. The layers were stacked and repainted appropriately to produce homogeneous three-dimensional dose distributions. A collimator/compensator was used to adjust the dose to coincide laterally/distally with the target volume. In addition, they applied volumetric repainting, since they are confident that this will further mitigate the effects of organ motion as compared with the presently used clinical scanning solutions. With the approach presented in this paper, they can profit from the higher flexibility of the scanning system to obtain additional advantages. For instance the shape of the energy layers can be adjusted to the projected target shape in order to reduce treatment time and neutrons produced in the collimator. The shape of the proximal layers can be shrunk, according to the cross section of the target at the corresponding range. This provides variable range modulation (proximal conformity) while standard scattering only provides fixed range modulation with unnecessary 100% dose proximal to the target. The field-specific hardware for a spherical target volume was mounted on the Gantry 2 nozzle. One field with proximal field size shrinking and one without, each of 1 Gy, were delivered. The dose distributions at different depths were recorded as CCD images of a scintillating screen. Results: The time to scan the volume once was about 4 s and the total delivery time was approximately 30 s. For the field with proximal conformity, dose sparing of up to 25% was measured in the region proximal to the target. A repainting capability of 48 times was achieved on the most distal layer. The proximal layers were repainted more due to the contribution of the plateau dose from the deeper layers. Conclusions: The flexibility of a fast scanning gantry with very fast energy changes can easily provide beam delivery by uniform layer stacking with a significant degree of volumetric repainting and with the benefit of a dose reduction proximal to the target volume.},
doi = {10.1118/1.3626483},
journal = {Medical Physics},
issn = {0094-2405},
number = 9,
volume = 38,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {9}
}