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Title: 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

Abstract

Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulnessmore » of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce realistic, predictive 3D and 4D imaging data from populations of normal and abnormal patients under various imaging parameters, the authors conclude that the XCAT provides an important tool in imaging research to evaluate and improve imaging devices and techniques. In the field of x-ray CT, the phantom may also provide the necessary foundation with which to optimize clinical CT applications in terms of image quality versus radiation dose, an area of research that is becoming more significant with the growing use of CT.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22098534
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Medical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: (c) 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0094-2405
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ADULTS; ANATOMY; DATASETS; FLEXIBILITY; ICRP; IMAGES; LUNGS; PATIENTS; PHANTOMS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION PROTECTION; SIMULATION; SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; STANDARDS; SURFACES

Citation Formats

Segars, W. P., Sturgeon, G., Mendonca, S., Grimes, Jason, Tsui, B. M. W., Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705, and The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1118/1.3480985.
Segars, W. P., Sturgeon, G., Mendonca, S., Grimes, Jason, Tsui, B. M. W., Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705, & The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research. United States. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.3480985
Segars, W. P., Sturgeon, G., Mendonca, S., Grimes, Jason, Tsui, B. M. W., Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705, and The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287. Wed . "4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research". United States. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.3480985.
@article{osti_22098534,
title = {4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research},
author = {Segars, W. P. and Sturgeon, G. and Mendonca, S. and Grimes, Jason and Tsui, B. M. W. and Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce realistic, predictive 3D and 4D imaging data from populations of normal and abnormal patients under various imaging parameters, the authors conclude that the XCAT provides an important tool in imaging research to evaluate and improve imaging devices and techniques. In the field of x-ray CT, the phantom may also provide the necessary foundation with which to optimize clinical CT applications in terms of image quality versus radiation dose, an area of research that is becoming more significant with the growing use of CT.},
doi = {10.1118/1.3480985},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22098534}, journal = {Medical Physics},
issn = {0094-2405},
number = 9,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {9}
}