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Title: Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

Abstract

Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 (Austria)
  2. (Slovenia)
  3. (Austria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22096936
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 38; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ALGORITHMS; COMPUTER CODES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; HEAD; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; INFORMATION; NMR IMAGING; PROTON DENSITY; RADIOTHERAPY; STANDARDS; SWINE; VALIDATION

Citation Formats

Pawiro, S. A., Markelj, P., Pernus, F., Gendrin, C., Figl, M., Weber, C., Kainberger, F., Noebauer-Huhmann, I., Bergmeister, H., Stock, M., Georg, D., Bergmann, H., Birkfellner, W., Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska Cesta 25, Ljubljana SI-1000, Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, University Clinic of Radiology, Division of Osteoradiology, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, Department of Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, University Clinic of Radiotherapy, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, AKH, Vienna A-1090, and Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1118/1.3553402.
Pawiro, S. A., Markelj, P., Pernus, F., Gendrin, C., Figl, M., Weber, C., Kainberger, F., Noebauer-Huhmann, I., Bergmeister, H., Stock, M., Georg, D., Bergmann, H., Birkfellner, W., Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska Cesta 25, Ljubljana SI-1000, Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, University Clinic of Radiology, Division of Osteoradiology, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, Department of Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, University Clinic of Radiotherapy, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, AKH, Vienna A-1090, & Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set. United States. doi:10.1118/1.3553402.
Pawiro, S. A., Markelj, P., Pernus, F., Gendrin, C., Figl, M., Weber, C., Kainberger, F., Noebauer-Huhmann, I., Bergmeister, H., Stock, M., Georg, D., Bergmann, H., Birkfellner, W., Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska Cesta 25, Ljubljana SI-1000, Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, University Clinic of Radiology, Division of Osteoradiology, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, Department of Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, University Clinic of Radiotherapy, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, AKH, Vienna A-1090, and Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090. 2011. "Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set". United States. doi:10.1118/1.3553402.
@article{osti_22096936,
title = {Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set},
author = {Pawiro, S. A. and Markelj, P. and Pernus, F. and Gendrin, C. and Figl, M. and Weber, C. and Kainberger, F. and Noebauer-Huhmann, I. and Bergmeister, H. and Stock, M. and Georg, D. and Bergmann, H. and Birkfellner, W. and Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska Cesta 25, Ljubljana SI-1000 and Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 and University Clinic of Radiology, Division of Osteoradiology, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 and Department of Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 and University Clinic of Radiotherapy, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, AKH, Vienna A-1090 and Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.3553402},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 38,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month = 3
}
  • Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstructionmore » gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS mTRE down to 0.56 and 0.70 mm, respectively). Overall, gradient-based similarity measures were found to be substantially more accurate than intensity-based methods and could cope with soft tissue deformation and enabled also accurate registrations of the MR-T1 volume to the kV x-ray image. Conclusions: In this article, the authors demonstrate the usefulness of a new phantom image data set for the evaluation of 2D/3D registration methods, which featured soft tissue deformation. The author's evaluation shows that gradient-based methods are more accurate than intensity-based methods, especially when soft tissue deformation is present. However, the current nonoptimized implementations make them prohibitively slow for practical applications. On the other hand, the speed of the intensity-based method renders these more suitable for clinical use, while the accuracy is still competitive.« less
  • Registration methods combine the anatomic localizing ability of CT or MRI with SPECT images of radiolabeled monocional antibodies (Mabs), allowing the accurate staging of patients prior to surgery or following treatment. Twenty-four patients (15 males and 9 females, mean age 55 yr, range 29-70 yr) were studied with this technique. Ten patients had suspected colorectal cancer recurrence and were infused with 10 mCi of {sup 131}I-CC49 prior to staging laparotomy. Fourteen patients treated in a Phase 1 radioimmunotherapy study with {sup 131}I-CC49 were also studied. All patients underwent SPECT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis 5-7 days following infusion ofmore » Mab. Phantom studies demonstrated a 3.6-mm surface fitting mean accurracy of datasets for the liver and 1.8 mm for an intrahepatic tumor. In the presurgical group, SPECT and CT/MRI registration allowed more accurate identification of uptake abnormal sites. Areas of metastatic disease > 1 cm confirmed at surgery were found in six of nine patients with liver lesions and in two patients with extrahepatic (including one patient with pelvic) disease. In patients imaged following radioimmunotherapy, all lesions > 1.5 cm seen on CT/MRI were identified, and activity distribution in tumor and normal tissue could be more accurately assessed. Routine registration of SPECT and CT/MRI images is feasible and allows more accurate anatomic assessment of sites of abnormal uptake in radiolabeled Mab studies. 41 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • The endorectal coil is being increasingly used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to obtain anatomic and metabolic images of the prostate with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In practice, however, the use of endorectal probe inevitably distorts the prostate and other soft tissue organs, making the analysis and the use of the acquired image data in treatment planning difficult. The purpose of this work is to develop a deformable image registration algorithm to map the MRI/MRSI information obtained using an endorectal probe onto CT images and to verify the accuracy of the registration by phantom andmore » patient studies. A mapping procedure involved using a thin plate spline (TPS) transformation was implemented to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between a reference image and a floating image with deformation. An elastic phantom with a number of implanted fiducial markers was designed for the validation of the quality of the registration. Radiographic images of the phantom were obtained before and after a series of intentionally introduced distortions. After mapping the distorted phantom to the original one, the displacements of the implanted markers were measured with respect to their ideal positions and the mean error was calculated. In patient studies, CT images of three prostate patients were acquired, followed by 3 Tesla (3 T) MR images with a rigid endorectal coil. Registration quality was estimated by the centroid position displacement and image coincidence index (CI). Phantom and patient studies show that TPS-based registration has achieved significantly higher accuracy than the previously reported method based on a rigid-body transformation and scaling. The technique should be useful to map the MR spectroscopic dataset acquired with ER probe onto the treatment planning CT dataset to guide radiotherapy planning.« less
  • Cone-beam X-ray volumetric imaging in the treatment room, allows online correction of set-up errors and offline assessment of residual set-up errors and organ motion. In this study the registration algorithm of the X-ray volume imaging software (XVI, Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom), which manages a commercial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based positioning system, has been tested using a homemade and an anthropomorphic phantom to: (1) assess its performance in detecting known translational and rotational set-up errors and (2) transfer the transformation matrix of its registrations into a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for offline organ motion analysis. Furthermore, CBCT dose index hasmore » been measured for a particular site (prostate: 120 kV, 1028.8 mAs, approximately 640 frames) using a standard Perspex cylindrical body phantom (diameter 32 cm, length 15 cm) and a 10-cm-long pencil ionization chamber. We have found that known displacements were correctly calculated by the registration software to within 1.3 mm and 0.4{sup o}. For the anthropomorphic phantom, only translational displacements have been considered. Both studies have shown errors within the intrinsic uncertainty of our system for translational displacements (estimated as 0.87 mm) and rotational displacements (estimated as 0.22{sup o}). The resulting table translations proposed by the system to correct the displacements were also checked with portal images and found to place the isocenter of the plan on the linac isocenter within an error of 1 mm, which is the dimension of the spherical lead marker inserted at the center of the homemade phantom. The registration matrix translated into the TPS image fusion module correctly reproduced the alignment between planning CT scans and CBCT scans. Finally, measurements on the CBCT dose index indicate that CBCT acquisition delivers less dose than conventional CT scans and electronic portal imaging device portals. The registration software was found to be accurate, and its registration matrix can be easily translated into the TPS and a low dose is delivered to the patient during image acquisition. These results can help in designing imaging protocols for offline evaluations.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of an automated method to validate gross tumor volume (GTV) delineations with pathology in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: High-resolution computed tomography (CT{sub HR}), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained from 10 patients before total laryngectomy. The GTV was delineated separately in each imaging modality. The laryngectomy specimen was sliced transversely in 3-mm-thick slices, and whole-mount hematoxylin-eosin stained (H and E) sections were obtained. A pathologist delineated tumor tissue in the H and E sections (GTV{sub PATH}). An automatic three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the specimenmore » was performed, and the CT{sub HR}, MRI, and PET were semiautomatically and rigidly registered to the 3D specimen. The accuracy of the pathology-imaging registration and the specimen deformation and shrinkage were assessed. The tumor delineation inaccuracies were compared with the registration errors. Results: Good agreement was observed between anatomical landmarks in the 3D specimen and in the in vivo images. Limited deformations and shrinkage (3% {+-} 1%) were found inside the cartilage skeleton. The root mean squared error of the registration between the 3D specimen and the CT, MRI, and PET was on average 1.5, 3.0, and 3.3 mm, respectively, in the cartilage skeleton. The GTV{sub PATH} volume was 7.2 mL, on average. The GTVs based on CT, MRI, and PET generated a mean volume of 14.9, 18.3, and 9.8 mL and covered the GTV{sub PATH} by 85%, 88%, and 77%, respectively. The tumor delineation inaccuracies exceeded the registration error in all the imaging modalities. Conclusions: Validation of GTV delineations with pathology is feasible with an average overall accuracy below 3.5 mm inside the laryngeal skeleton. The tumor delineation inaccuracies were larger than the registration error. Therefore, an accurate histological validation of anatomical and functional imaging techniques for GTV delineation is possible in laryngeal cancer patients.« less