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Title: FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

Abstract

The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering themore » average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]
  1. IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)
  2. School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22092322
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 757; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; DENSITY; LUMINOSITY; LYMAN LINES; MASS; METALS; MILKY WAY; PROBABILITY; RED SHIFT; STAR CLUSTERS; STARS; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Elmegreen, Bruce G., Malhotra, Sangeeta, and Rhoads, James, E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/9.
Elmegreen, Bruce G., Malhotra, Sangeeta, & Rhoads, James, E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/9.
Elmegreen, Bruce G., Malhotra, Sangeeta, and Rhoads, James, E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com. 2012. "FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/9.
@article{osti_22092322,
title = {FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE},
author = {Elmegreen, Bruce G. and Malhotra, Sangeeta and Rhoads, James, E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com},
abstractNote = {The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering the average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/9},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 757,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month = 9
}
  • We present the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the globular clusters (GCs) and fields of seven early-type galaxies. These galaxies are selected to have both deep Chandra observations, which allow their LMXB populations to be observed to X-ray luminosities of 10{sup 37}–10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}, and Hubble Space Telescope optical mosaics that enable the X-ray sources to be separated into field LMXBs, GC LMXBs, and contaminating background and foreground sources. We find that at all luminosities the number of field LMXBs per stellar mass is similar in these galaxies. This suggests that the fieldmore » LMXB populations in these galaxies are not effected by the GC specific frequency, and that properties such as binary fraction and the stellar initial mass function are either similar across the sample or change in a way that does not affect the number of LMXBs. We compare the XLF of the field LMXBs to that of the GC LMXBs and find that they are significantly different with a p-value of 3 × 10{sup −6} (equivalent to 4.7σ for a normal distribution). The difference is such that the XLF of the GC LMXBs is flatter than that of the field LMXBs, with the GCs hosting relatively more bright sources and fewer faint sources. A comparison of the XLF of the metal-rich and metal-poor GCs hints that the metal-poor clusters may have more bright LMXBs, but the difference is not statistically significant.« less
  • The mean color of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies is in general bluer than the integrated color of halo field stars in host galaxies. Metal-rich GCs often appear more associated with field stars than metal-poor GCs, yet show bluer colors than their host galaxy light. Motivated by the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Milky Way GCs, we present a new scenario in which the presence of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs is responsible for the color discrepancy between metal-rich GCs and field stars. The model assumes that the SG populations have an enhanced helium abundance as evidenced bymore » observations, and it gives a good explanation of the bluer optical colors of metal-rich GCs than field stars as well as strong Balmer lines and blue UV colors of metal-rich GCs. Ours may be complementary to the recent scenario suggesting the difference in stellar mass functions (MFs) as an origin for the GC-to-star color offset. A quantitative comparison is given between the SG and MF models.« less
  • We present optical spectroscopy of two samples of Galaxy Evolution Explorer grism selected Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs): one at z = 0.195-0.44 and the other at z = 0.65-1.25. We have also observed a comparison sample of galaxies in the same redshift intervals with the same UV magnitude distributions but with no detected Ly{alpha}. We use the optical spectroscopy to eliminate active galactic nuclei and to obtain the optical emission-line properties of the samples. We compare the luminosities of the LAEs in the two redshift intervals and show that there is dramatic evolution in the maximum Ly{alpha} luminosity over z =more » 0-1. Focusing on the z = 0.195-0.44 samples alone, we show that there are tightly defined relations between all of the galaxy parameters and the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of H{alpha}. The higher EW(H{alpha}) sources all have lower metallicities, bluer colors, smaller sizes, and less extinction, consistent with their being in the early stages of the galaxy formation process. We find that 75% {+-} 12% of the LAEs have EW(H{alpha}) >100 A and, conversely, that 31% {+-} 13% of galaxies with EW(H{alpha}) >100 A are LAEs. We correct the broadband magnitudes for the emission-line contributions and use spectral synthesis fits to estimate the ages of the galaxies. We find a median age of 1.1 x 10{sup 8} yr for the LAE sample and 1.4 x 10{sup 9} yr for the UV-continuum sample without detected Ly{alpha}. The median metallicity of the LAE sample is 12 + log (O/H) = 8.24, or about 0.4 dex lower than the UV-continuum sample.« less
  • Oxygen and sodium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 17 red giant members of the metal-poor Galactic globular clusters M68 (two stars), M30 (two stars), M15 (two stars), M55 (two stars), and NGC 6397 (five stars), as well as for the moderately metal-poor clusters NGC 4833 (one star), NGC 6144 (one star), and NGC 6752 (three stars). The behavior of [O/Fe] with respect to luminosity and metallicity is investigated. As found in previous works, the oxygen-to-iron ratios show an upper envelope, in agreement with the mean level of field halo stars of similar metallicities ([O/Fe]=+0.4{plus_minus}0.15). Moreover, as ismore » true of the more metal-rich giants in globular clusters, about one-third of the stars do not have enhanced oxygen with respect to iron, in contrast to field giants of similar metallicity, which are almost invariably oxygen-rich. Several explanations for this deficiency are examined, including emission possibly associated with mass-loss filling in the oxygen lines and evolutionary mixing effects. In particular, the abundances of oxygen and sodium are seen to be anticorrelated, in agreement with previous results (Kraft {ital et} {ital al}. 1995). The enhancement of oxygen in these extremely metal-poor clusters appears similar to that of less metal-deficient clusters, an important datum for determinations of their relative ages. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}« less