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Title: YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET

Abstract

The Pipe nebula is a massive, nearby, filamentary dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency threaded by a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its main axis. It harbors more than a hundred, mostly quiescent, very chemically young starless cores. The cloud is therefore a good laboratory to study the earliest stages of the star formation process. We aim to investigate the primordial conditions and the relation among physical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the evolution of low-mass starless cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission of five new starless cores, which are in good agreement with previous visual extinction maps. For the sample of nine cores, which includes the four cores studied in a previous work, we derived an A {sub V} to N{sub H{sub 2}} factor of (1.27 {+-} 0.12) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} mag cm{sup 2} and a background visual extinction of {approx}6.7 mag possibly arising from the cloud material. We derived an average core diameter of {approx}0.08 pc, density of {approx}10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and mass of {approx}1.7 M {sub Sun }. Several trends seem to exist related to increasing core density: (1) the diameter seems tomore » shrink, (2) the mass seems to increase, and (3) the chemistry tends to be richer. No correlation is found between the direction of the surrounding diffuse medium magnetic field and the projected orientation of the cores, suggesting that large-scale magnetic fields seem to play a secondary role in shaping the cores. We also used the IRAM 30 m telescope to extend the previous molecular survey at 1 and 3 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward the same five new Pipe nebula starless cores, and analyzed the normalized intensities of the detected molecular transitions. We confirmed the chemical differentiation toward the sample and increased the number of molecular transitions of the 'diffuse' (e.g., the 'ubiquitous' CO, C{sub 2}H, and CS), 'oxo-sulfurated' (e.g., SO and CH{sub 3}OH), and 'deuterated' (e.g., N{sub 2}H{sup +}, CN, and HCN) starless core groups. The chemically defined core groups seem to be related to different evolutionary stages: 'diffuse' cores present the cloud chemistry and are less dense, while 'deuterated' cores are the densest and present a chemistry typical of evolved dense cores. 'Oxo-sulfurated' cores might be in a transitional stage exhibiting intermediate properties and a very characteristic chemistry.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]; ;  [5];  [6];  [7]
  1. Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain)
  2. INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
  3. INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)
  4. Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
  5. Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)
  6. Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
  7. Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22086493
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 759; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; CARBON MONOXIDE; CARBON NITRIDES; CORRELATIONS; COSMIC DUST; COSMOLOGY; CYANIDES; DENSITY; EMISSION; HYDROCYANIC ACID; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; MASS; METHANOL; NEBULAE; STAR EVOLUTION; STARS; TELESCOPES

Citation Formats

Frau, P., Girart, J. M., Padovani, M., Beltran, M. T., Sanchez-Monge, A., Busquet, G., Morata, O., Masque, J. M., Estalella, R., Alves, F. O., and Franco, G. A. P. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/3.
Frau, P., Girart, J. M., Padovani, M., Beltran, M. T., Sanchez-Monge, A., Busquet, G., Morata, O., Masque, J. M., Estalella, R., Alves, F. O., & Franco, G. A. P. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/3.
Frau, P., Girart, J. M., Padovani, M., Beltran, M. T., Sanchez-Monge, A., Busquet, G., Morata, O., Masque, J. M., Estalella, R., Alves, F. O., and Franco, G. A. P. Thu . "YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/3.
@article{osti_22086493,
title = {YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET},
author = {Frau, P. and Girart, J. M. and Padovani, M. and Beltran, M. T. and Sanchez-Monge, A. and Busquet, G. and Morata, O. and Masque, J. M. and Estalella, R. and Alves, F. O. and Franco, G. A. P.},
abstractNote = {The Pipe nebula is a massive, nearby, filamentary dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency threaded by a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its main axis. It harbors more than a hundred, mostly quiescent, very chemically young starless cores. The cloud is therefore a good laboratory to study the earliest stages of the star formation process. We aim to investigate the primordial conditions and the relation among physical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the evolution of low-mass starless cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission of five new starless cores, which are in good agreement with previous visual extinction maps. For the sample of nine cores, which includes the four cores studied in a previous work, we derived an A {sub V} to N{sub H{sub 2}} factor of (1.27 {+-} 0.12) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} mag cm{sup 2} and a background visual extinction of {approx}6.7 mag possibly arising from the cloud material. We derived an average core diameter of {approx}0.08 pc, density of {approx}10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and mass of {approx}1.7 M {sub Sun }. Several trends seem to exist related to increasing core density: (1) the diameter seems to shrink, (2) the mass seems to increase, and (3) the chemistry tends to be richer. No correlation is found between the direction of the surrounding diffuse medium magnetic field and the projected orientation of the cores, suggesting that large-scale magnetic fields seem to play a secondary role in shaping the cores. We also used the IRAM 30 m telescope to extend the previous molecular survey at 1 and 3 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward the same five new Pipe nebula starless cores, and analyzed the normalized intensities of the detected molecular transitions. We confirmed the chemical differentiation toward the sample and increased the number of molecular transitions of the 'diffuse' (e.g., the 'ubiquitous' CO, C{sub 2}H, and CS), 'oxo-sulfurated' (e.g., SO and CH{sub 3}OH), and 'deuterated' (e.g., N{sub 2}H{sup +}, CN, and HCN) starless core groups. The chemically defined core groups seem to be related to different evolutionary stages: 'diffuse' cores present the cloud chemistry and are less dense, while 'deuterated' cores are the densest and present a chemistry typical of evolved dense cores. 'Oxo-sulfurated' cores might be in a transitional stage exhibiting intermediate properties and a very characteristic chemistry.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/3},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 759,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}