# THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'

## Abstract

Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that the momentum carried in mass outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can reach several times L/c, corresponding to outflow rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. Radiation pressure on resonant absorption lines alone may not be sufficient to provide this momentum deposition, and the transfer of reprocessed IR radiation in dusty nuclear gas has been postulated to provide the extra enhancement. The efficacy of this mechanism, however, will be sensitive to multi-dimensional effects such as the tendency for the reprocessed radiation to preferentially escape along sightlines of lower column density. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to determine the radiation force on dusty gas residing within approximately 30 parsecs from an accreting supermassive black hole. We calculate the net rate of momentum deposition in the surrounding gas and estimate the mass-loss rate in the resulting outflow as a function of solid angle for different black hole luminosities, sightline-averaged column densities, clumping parameters, and opening angles of the dusty gas. We find that these dust-driven winds carry momentum fluxes of 1-5 times L/c and correspond to mass-loss rates of 10-100 M {sub Sun} per year for a 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} blackmore »

- Authors:

- Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
- Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22086479

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Journal Name:
- Astrophysical Journal

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 759; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; BLACK HOLES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMIC DUST; DENSITY; GALAXIES; GALAXY NUCLEI; INFRARED RADIATION; LUMINOSITY; MASS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; QUASARS; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER; RADIATION PRESSURE; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

### Citation Formats

```
Roth, Nathaniel, Kasen, Daniel, Quataert, Eliot, and Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: nathaniel.roth@berkeley.edu.
```*THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'*. United States: N. p., 2012.
Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/36.

```
Roth, Nathaniel, Kasen, Daniel, Quataert, Eliot, & Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: nathaniel.roth@berkeley.edu.
```*THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'*. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/36.

```
Roth, Nathaniel, Kasen, Daniel, Quataert, Eliot, and Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: nathaniel.roth@berkeley.edu. Thu .
"THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/36.
```

```
@article{osti_22086479,
```

title = {THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'},

author = {Roth, Nathaniel and Kasen, Daniel and Quataert, Eliot and Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: nathaniel.roth@berkeley.edu},

abstractNote = {Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that the momentum carried in mass outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can reach several times L/c, corresponding to outflow rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. Radiation pressure on resonant absorption lines alone may not be sufficient to provide this momentum deposition, and the transfer of reprocessed IR radiation in dusty nuclear gas has been postulated to provide the extra enhancement. The efficacy of this mechanism, however, will be sensitive to multi-dimensional effects such as the tendency for the reprocessed radiation to preferentially escape along sightlines of lower column density. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to determine the radiation force on dusty gas residing within approximately 30 parsecs from an accreting supermassive black hole. We calculate the net rate of momentum deposition in the surrounding gas and estimate the mass-loss rate in the resulting outflow as a function of solid angle for different black hole luminosities, sightline-averaged column densities, clumping parameters, and opening angles of the dusty gas. We find that these dust-driven winds carry momentum fluxes of 1-5 times L/c and correspond to mass-loss rates of 10-100 M {sub Sun} per year for a 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} black hole radiating at or near its Eddington limit. These results help to explain the origin of high velocity molecular and atomic outflows in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and can inform numerical simulations of galaxy evolution including AGN feedback.},

doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/36},

journal = {Astrophysical Journal},

issn = {0004-637X},

number = 1,

volume = 759,

place = {United States},

year = {2012},

month = {11}

}