skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SPIN EVOLUTION OF MILLISECOND MAGNETARS WITH HYPERACCRETING FALLBACK DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

Abstract

The shallow decay phase or plateau phase of early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), discovered by Swift, is currently understood as being due to energy injection to a relativistic blast wave. One natural scenario for energy injection invokes a millisecond magnetar as the central engine of GRBs because the conventional model of a pulsar predicts a nearly constant magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity within the spin-down timescale. However, we note that significant brightening occurs in some early afterglows, which apparently conflicts with the above scenario. Here we propose a new model to explain this significant brightening phenomena by considering a hyperaccreting fallback disk around a newborn millisecond magnetar. We show that for typical values of the model parameters, sufficient angular momentum of the accreted matter is transferred to the magnetar and spins it up. It is this spin-up that leads to a dramatic increase of the magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity with time and thus significant brightening of an early afterglow. Based on this model, we carry out numerical calculations and fit well early afterglows of 12 GRBs assuming sufficiently strong fallback accretion. If the accretion is very weak, our model turns out to be the conventional energy-injection scenario of a pulsar. Therefore, our model canmore » provide a unified explanation for the shallow decay phase, plateaus, and significant brightening of early afterglows.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22086437
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 759; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; AFTERGLOW; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; COSMOLOGY; LUMINOSITY; MAGNETIC DIPOLES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC STARS; NEUTRON STARS; PULSARS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SPIN; STAR EVOLUTION

Citation Formats

Dai, Z. G., and Liu Ruoyu, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ryliu@nju.edu.cn. SPIN EVOLUTION OF MILLISECOND MAGNETARS WITH HYPERACCRETING FALLBACK DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/58.
Dai, Z. G., & Liu Ruoyu, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ryliu@nju.edu.cn. SPIN EVOLUTION OF MILLISECOND MAGNETARS WITH HYPERACCRETING FALLBACK DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/58.
Dai, Z. G., and Liu Ruoyu, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ryliu@nju.edu.cn. Thu . "SPIN EVOLUTION OF MILLISECOND MAGNETARS WITH HYPERACCRETING FALLBACK DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/58.
@article{osti_22086437,
title = {SPIN EVOLUTION OF MILLISECOND MAGNETARS WITH HYPERACCRETING FALLBACK DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS},
author = {Dai, Z. G. and Liu Ruoyu, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ryliu@nju.edu.cn},
abstractNote = {The shallow decay phase or plateau phase of early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), discovered by Swift, is currently understood as being due to energy injection to a relativistic blast wave. One natural scenario for energy injection invokes a millisecond magnetar as the central engine of GRBs because the conventional model of a pulsar predicts a nearly constant magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity within the spin-down timescale. However, we note that significant brightening occurs in some early afterglows, which apparently conflicts with the above scenario. Here we propose a new model to explain this significant brightening phenomena by considering a hyperaccreting fallback disk around a newborn millisecond magnetar. We show that for typical values of the model parameters, sufficient angular momentum of the accreted matter is transferred to the magnetar and spins it up. It is this spin-up that leads to a dramatic increase of the magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity with time and thus significant brightening of an early afterglow. Based on this model, we carry out numerical calculations and fit well early afterglows of 12 GRBs assuming sufficiently strong fallback accretion. If the accretion is very weak, our model turns out to be the conventional energy-injection scenario of a pulsar. Therefore, our model can provide a unified explanation for the shallow decay phase, plateaus, and significant brightening of early afterglows.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/58},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 759,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}