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Title: OPTICAL TO X-RAY SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING SHOCK BREAKOUT THROUGH A THICK WIND

Abstract

Recent supernova (SN) observations have motivated renewed interest in SN shock breakouts from stars surrounded by thick winds. In such events the interaction with the wind powers the observed luminosity, and predictions include observable hard X-rays. Wind breakouts on timescales of a day or longer are currently the most probable for detection. Here, we study the signal that follows such events. We start from the breakout of the radiation-mediated shock, finding that the breakout temperature can vary significantly from one event to another (10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K) due to possible deviation from thermal equilibrium. In general, events with longer breakout pulse duration, t {sub bo}, are softer. We follow the observed radiation through the evolution of the collisionless shock that forms after the breakout of the radiation-mediated shock. We restrict the study of the collisionless shock evolution to cases where the breakout itself is in thermal equilibrium, peaking in optical/UV. In these cases the post-breakout emission contains two spectral components-soft (optical/UV) and hard (X-rays and possibly soft {gamma}-rays). Right after the breakout pulse X-rays are strongly suppressed, and they carry only a small fraction of the total luminosity. The hard component becomes harder, and its luminositymore » rises quickly afterward, gaining dominance at {approx}10-50 t {sub bo}. The ratio of the peak optical/UV to the peak X-ray luminosity depends mostly on the breakout time. In early breakouts (t {sub bo} {approx}< 20 days for typical parameters) they are comparable, while in late breakouts (t {sub bo} {approx}> 80 days for typical parameters) the X-rays become dominant only after the total luminosity has dropped significantly. In terms of prospects for X-ray and soft gamma-ray detections, it is best to observe 100-500 days after explosions with breakout timescales between a week and a month.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)
  2. Racah Institute for Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22086389
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 759; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; GAMMA DETECTION; HARD COMPONENT; HARD X RADIATION; LUMINOSITY; PHOTON EMISSION; PULSES; STAR EVOLUTION; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERNOVAE; THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Svirski, Gilad, Nakar, Ehud, and Sari, Re'em. OPTICAL TO X-RAY SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING SHOCK BREAKOUT THROUGH A THICK WIND. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/2/108.
Svirski, Gilad, Nakar, Ehud, & Sari, Re'em. OPTICAL TO X-RAY SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING SHOCK BREAKOUT THROUGH A THICK WIND. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/2/108.
Svirski, Gilad, Nakar, Ehud, and Sari, Re'em. Sat . "OPTICAL TO X-RAY SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING SHOCK BREAKOUT THROUGH A THICK WIND". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/2/108.
@article{osti_22086389,
title = {OPTICAL TO X-RAY SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING SHOCK BREAKOUT THROUGH A THICK WIND},
author = {Svirski, Gilad and Nakar, Ehud and Sari, Re'em},
abstractNote = {Recent supernova (SN) observations have motivated renewed interest in SN shock breakouts from stars surrounded by thick winds. In such events the interaction with the wind powers the observed luminosity, and predictions include observable hard X-rays. Wind breakouts on timescales of a day or longer are currently the most probable for detection. Here, we study the signal that follows such events. We start from the breakout of the radiation-mediated shock, finding that the breakout temperature can vary significantly from one event to another (10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K) due to possible deviation from thermal equilibrium. In general, events with longer breakout pulse duration, t {sub bo}, are softer. We follow the observed radiation through the evolution of the collisionless shock that forms after the breakout of the radiation-mediated shock. We restrict the study of the collisionless shock evolution to cases where the breakout itself is in thermal equilibrium, peaking in optical/UV. In these cases the post-breakout emission contains two spectral components-soft (optical/UV) and hard (X-rays and possibly soft {gamma}-rays). Right after the breakout pulse X-rays are strongly suppressed, and they carry only a small fraction of the total luminosity. The hard component becomes harder, and its luminosity rises quickly afterward, gaining dominance at {approx}10-50 t {sub bo}. The ratio of the peak optical/UV to the peak X-ray luminosity depends mostly on the breakout time. In early breakouts (t {sub bo} {approx}< 20 days for typical parameters) they are comparable, while in late breakouts (t {sub bo} {approx}> 80 days for typical parameters) the X-rays become dominant only after the total luminosity has dropped significantly. In terms of prospects for X-ray and soft gamma-ray detections, it is best to observe 100-500 days after explosions with breakout timescales between a week and a month.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/759/2/108},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 759,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}