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Title: Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device

Abstract

A precise absolute intensity calibration of a flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 60-400 A is carried out using a new calibration technique based on radial profile measurement of the bremsstrahlung continuum in Large Helical Device. A peaked vertical profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum has been successfully observed in high-density plasmas (n{sub e}{>=} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) with hydrogen ice pellet injection. The absolute calibration can be done by comparing the EUV bremsstrahlung profile with the visible bremsstrahlung profile of which the absolute value has been already calibrated using a standard lamp. The line-integrated profile of measured visible bremsstrahlung continuum is firstly converted into the local emissivity profile by considering a magnetic surface distortion due to the plasma pressure, and the local emissivity profile of EUV bremsstrahlung is secondly calculated by taking into account the electron temperature profile and free-free gaunt factor. The line-integrated profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum is finally calculated from the local emissivity profile in order to compare with measured EUV bremsstrahlung profile. The absolute intensity calibration can be done by comparing measured and calculated EUV bremsstrahlung profiles. The calibration factor is thus obtained as a function of wavelength withmore » excellent accuracy. It is also found in the profile analysis that the grating reflectivity of EUV emissions is constant along the direction perpendicular to the wavelength dispersion. Uncertainties on the calibration factor determined with the present method are discussed including charge-coupled device operation modes.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)
  2. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22066279
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 82; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ACCURACY; BREMSSTRAHLUNG; CALIBRATION; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; EMISSIVITY; EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; HYDROGEN; ICE; LHD DEVICE; LIGHT BULBS; MAGNETIC SURFACES; PELLET INJECTION; PLASMA DENSITY; PLASMA PRESSURE; REFLECTIVITY; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETERS; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Dong Chunfeng, Wang Erhui, Morita, Shigeru, Goto, Motoshi, and National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu. Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3658050.
Dong Chunfeng, Wang Erhui, Morita, Shigeru, Goto, Motoshi, & National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu. Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3658050.
Dong Chunfeng, Wang Erhui, Morita, Shigeru, Goto, Motoshi, and National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu. 2011. "Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3658050.
@article{osti_22066279,
title = {Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device},
author = {Dong Chunfeng and Wang Erhui and Morita, Shigeru and Goto, Motoshi and National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu},
abstractNote = {A precise absolute intensity calibration of a flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 60-400 A is carried out using a new calibration technique based on radial profile measurement of the bremsstrahlung continuum in Large Helical Device. A peaked vertical profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum has been successfully observed in high-density plasmas (n{sub e}{>=} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) with hydrogen ice pellet injection. The absolute calibration can be done by comparing the EUV bremsstrahlung profile with the visible bremsstrahlung profile of which the absolute value has been already calibrated using a standard lamp. The line-integrated profile of measured visible bremsstrahlung continuum is firstly converted into the local emissivity profile by considering a magnetic surface distortion due to the plasma pressure, and the local emissivity profile of EUV bremsstrahlung is secondly calculated by taking into account the electron temperature profile and free-free gaunt factor. The line-integrated profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum is finally calculated from the local emissivity profile in order to compare with measured EUV bremsstrahlung profile. The absolute intensity calibration can be done by comparing measured and calculated EUV bremsstrahlung profiles. The calibration factor is thus obtained as a function of wavelength with excellent accuracy. It is also found in the profile analysis that the grating reflectivity of EUV emissions is constant along the direction perpendicular to the wavelength dispersion. Uncertainties on the calibration factor determined with the present method are discussed including charge-coupled device operation modes.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3658050},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 11,
volume = 82,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month =
}
  • A space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 50-500 A has been developed to measure two-dimensional distribution of impurity spectral lines emitted from edge plasma of Large Helical Device (LHD), in which the magnetic field is formed by stochastic magnetic field with three-dimensional structure called ergodic layer. The two-dimensional measurement of edge impurity line emissions is carried out by scanning horizontally the observation chord of the space-resolved EUV spectrometer during single LHD discharge. Images of CIV (312.4 A) and HeII (303.78 A) are presented as the first result. The results are compared with ones calculated from themore » edge chord length in the ergodic layer of LHD plasma.« less
  • An astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner-type visible spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device has been installed in large helical device (LHD) to measure visible bremsstrahlung continuum. A full vertical profile has been observed from the elliptical plasmas at horizontally elongated plasma cross section through a 44 fiber parallel array with vertical observation length of {approx}1 m. Line emissions can be easily eliminated by use of the visible spectrometer instead of an interference filter. A nonmonotonic bremsstrahlung emission profile, which is originated in the thick ergodic layer surrounding the main plasma, has been observed for normal discharges in all the magnetic configurations of LHD.more » After analyzing the detailed structure, the lower half of the vertical bremsstrahlung emission profile is found to be free of the strong edge bremsstrahlung emission in inwardly shifted magnetic configurations (R{sub ax{<=}}3.60 m). The nonmonotonic bremsstrahlung emission disappeared in extremely high-density discharges (n{sub e{>=}}10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) because of the reduction of the plasma outside boundary. When the local emissivity is calculated using Abel inversion, the solution is very sensitive to the distortion of the magnetic surface structure. The influence of the magnetic surface distortion based on the finite {beta} effect is examined as error estimation in addition to unclear edge plasma boundary due to the presence of the ergodic layer. The result indicates that the determination of the normalized minor radius for each observation chord gives a larger influence on the Abel inversion rather than the determination of the chord length. When the observed chord-integrated bremsstrahlung intensity profile is flat, the resultant uncertainty seen in the bremsstrahlung emissivity profile becomes large, in particular, at the plasma center. The Z{sub eff} profile calculated with consideration of density and temperature profiles is verified in neutral-beam-heated discharges with H{sub 2} and C pellet injections, where the Z{sub eff} values should be close to 1 and 6, respectively. Analysis on the flat and hollow electron density profiles results in a fairly flat Z{sub eff} profile.« less
  • A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer with a varied line spacing groove grating (1200 grooves/mm at grating center) has been developed to study the emission spectra from highly ionized medium Z impurities in large helical device (LHD). It covers a wavelength range of 50-500 A using a mechanically ruled grating, which was later replaced by a newly developed laminar-type holographic grating for comparative studies. Differences in spectral resolution, intensities of higher order spectra, and sensitivities of the spectrometer were studied between the two gratings by observing the emission spectra of LHD plasmas. Although the achieved resolution was alike between them,more » i.e., {delta}{lambda}{approx}0.24 A ring at 200 A, the holographic grating was much superior in suppressing the higher order light than the ruled grating. The relative sensitivity between the two gratings was evaluated using continuum radiation from LHD plasmas. As a result, it was found that the holographic grating has a flat response in the full wavelength range, but the sensitivity of the ruled grating drops sharply below 200 A. A new technique for the absolute calibration of the EUV holographic grating spectrometer was tried by combining the continuum radiation with a branching ratio of C IV lines (3p-3s: 5800 A/3p-2s: 312 A), and an accurate absolute sensitivity has been successfully obtained.« less
  • A space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in 60-400 A range has been developed to observe impurity emission profiles in core and edge plasmas of Large Helical Device (LHD). A flat focus is made for plane surface detector by using a varied line spacing holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87 deg. An excellent spectral resolution of 0.22 A at 200 A is then obtained after careful adjustment of the optical components. In the profile measurement of the LHD plasmas, the toroidal resolution is important as well as the radial resolution because the magnetic surfaces of LHD quicklymore » change when the observation chord is tilted at a slightly different toroidal location. Horizontal dispersion is therefore selected for the present spectrometer. As a result, the toroidal resolution of 75 mm is achieved at the plasma position. An enough radial resolution of 10 mm is also obtained at spatial-resolution slit width of 0.2 mm. In order to measure the full radial profile of LHD plasmas the spectrometer is placed at a distance of {approx}9200 mm away from the plasma center and a backilluminated charge-coupled device with a size of 6.6x26.6 mm{sup 2} is set vertical to the horizontal dispersion. Half of the LHD plasma, i.e., {approx}50 cm, can be measured along the vertical direction at horizontally elongated plasma cross section. A full vertical profile can be obtained by changing the vertical angle of the EUV spectrometer. As an example the full vertical profile of edge C IV (312.4 A) emission is presented. A wavelength interval of 35-65 A can be simultaneously observed, which varies according to the wavelength to be measured. A local emission profile of Fe XX (132.67 A) is also presented after Abel inversion as a typical example of the core EUV emission. Finally, the EUV spectrometer is absolutely calibrated using EUV bremsstrahlung continuum profile in comparison with absolute values of visible bremsstrahlung continuum profile because the bremsstrahlung continuum can be easily detected in high-density discharges of LHD.« less
  • A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10–130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Z{sub eff} and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise frommore » the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}, when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3–2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10–18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used filters are also presented with performance of the present spectrometer system.« less