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Title: Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event andmore » 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor control and a low toxicity profile. Further investigation is warranted to identify the patients who benefit most from this treatment modality. The optimal combination with androgen deprivation should also be defined.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5]; ;  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2]; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [6];  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)
  2. (Italy)
  3. CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy)
  4. Radiotherapy Unit, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Milan (Italy)
  5. Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)
  6. Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22056054
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 82; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANDROGENS; ANTIGENS; CHOLINE; LYMPH NODES; METASTASES; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RECTUM; STABILIZATION; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it, University of Milan, Milan, Beltramo, Giancarlo, Fariselli, Laura, Fodor, Cristiana, Santoro, Luigi, Vavassori, Andrea, Zerini, Dario, Gherardi, Federica, University of Milan, Milan, Ascione, Carmen, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples, Bossi-Zanetti, Isa, Mauro, Roberta, University of Milan, Milan, Bregantin, Achille, Bianchi, Livia Corinna, De Cobelli, Ottavio, Orecchia, Roberto, and University of Milan, Milan. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2010.11.031.
Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it, University of Milan, Milan, Beltramo, Giancarlo, Fariselli, Laura, Fodor, Cristiana, Santoro, Luigi, Vavassori, Andrea, Zerini, Dario, Gherardi, Federica, University of Milan, Milan, Ascione, Carmen, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples, Bossi-Zanetti, Isa, Mauro, Roberta, University of Milan, Milan, Bregantin, Achille, Bianchi, Livia Corinna, De Cobelli, Ottavio, Orecchia, Roberto, & University of Milan, Milan. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2010.11.031.
Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it, University of Milan, Milan, Beltramo, Giancarlo, Fariselli, Laura, Fodor, Cristiana, Santoro, Luigi, Vavassori, Andrea, Zerini, Dario, Gherardi, Federica, University of Milan, Milan, Ascione, Carmen, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples, Bossi-Zanetti, Isa, Mauro, Roberta, University of Milan, Milan, Bregantin, Achille, Bianchi, Livia Corinna, De Cobelli, Ottavio, Orecchia, Roberto, and University of Milan, Milan. Wed . "Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2010.11.031.
@article{osti_22056054,
title = {Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer},
author = {Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it and University of Milan, Milan and Beltramo, Giancarlo and Fariselli, Laura and Fodor, Cristiana and Santoro, Luigi and Vavassori, Andrea and Zerini, Dario and Gherardi, Federica and University of Milan, Milan and Ascione, Carmen and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples and Bossi-Zanetti, Isa and Mauro, Roberta and University of Milan, Milan and Bregantin, Achille and Bianchi, Livia Corinna and De Cobelli, Ottavio and Orecchia, Roberto and University of Milan, Milan},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor control and a low toxicity profile. Further investigation is warranted to identify the patients who benefit most from this treatment modality. The optimal combination with androgen deprivation should also be defined.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2010.11.031},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 82,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2012},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2012}
}
  • Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a local treatment for isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively enrolled 30 patients with isolated PALN metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer who had received SBRT using the CyberKnife (CK). All patients were shown to have isolated PALN metastases by computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT. The overall survival (OS), local control (LC) rate, and disease progression-free survival (DPFS) rate were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meiermore » method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed using log-rank analysis. Toxicities were also evaluated. Results: The 4-year OS rate was 50.1%, and the median survival time was not reached. The OS rate among symptomatic patients was significantly lower than that among asymptomatic patients (p = 0.002). The 4-year actuarial LC rate was 67.4%. Patients with a planning target volume of {<=}17 ml had significantly higher LC rates (p = 0.009). The 4-year DPFS rate was 45.0%, and the median time to disease progression was 32 months. Small planning target volume was a favorable prognostic factor (p = 0.043). Grade 3 or 4 complications requiring hospitalization were reported in 1 patient at 20 months after SBRT. Conclusion: The OS and LS rates were promising, and the incidence of toxicities was low. Use of SBRT with the CyberKnife is an effective modality for treating isolated PALN metastases in patients with uterine cervical and corpus cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To study the impact on nodal coverage and dose to fixed organs at risk when using daily fiducial localization of the prostate to deliver intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Five patients with prostate cancer in whom prostate and pelvic nodes were irradiated with IMRT were studied. Dose was prescribed such that 95% of the prostate planning target volume (PTV) and 90% of the nodal PTV were covered. Random and systematic prostate displacements in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, and left-right directions were simulated to shift the original isocenter of the IMRT plan. The composite dose during the course of treatmentmore » was calculated. Results: Compared with a static setup, simulating random shifts reduced dose by less than 1.5% for nodal hotspot (i.e., dose to 1 cm{sup 3}), by less than 1% for the 90% nodal PTV coverage, and by less than 0.5% for the nodal mean dose. Bowel and femoral head hotspots were reduced by less than 1.5% and 2%, respectively. A 10-mm systematic offset reduced nodal coverage by up to 10%. Conclusion: The use of prostate fiducials for daily localization during IMRT treatment results in negligible changes in dose coverage of pelvic nodes or normal tissue sparing in the absence of a significant systematic offset. This offers a simple and practical solution to the problem of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer when including pelvic nodes.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of external beam radiotherapy for abdominal lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with recurrent gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data of 79 patients with abdominal LN metastases developing after curative resection of gastric tumor were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 79 patients, 37 received radiation (40-60 Gy in fractions of 2.0 Gy daily, five times weekly; termed the radiation group), and 42 received chemotherapy or supportive care (the nonradiation group). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate survival, and a Cox regression model was used to identify predictors of prognosis. Results: After radiation, completemore » response and partial response were observed in 29.7% and 54.1% of patients, respectively. Clinical symptoms were relieved in 19 of 21 patients (90.5%) after completing radiation. Median survival time was 11.4 months in the radiation group and 4.8 months in the nonradiation group. Overall survival for patients with and without radiation was 43.2% and 19.0% at 1 year and 27.6% and 4.1% at 2 years, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of death in the radiation group from the time of diagnosis of LN metastases was 0.253 (p < 0.001). The most common adverse effect of radiation was gastrointestinal toxicity, but it was mild in most patients. Conclusions: Abdominal LN metastases from gastric cancer are sensitive to radiation. Delivery of 50 Gy is effective as palliative treatment and may prolong overall survival.« less
  • Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineatedmore » on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify gains in lymph node coverage and critical structure dose reduction for whole-pelvis (WP) and extended-field (EF) radiotherapy in prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for the first treatment phase of 45 Gy in the concurrent treatment of lymph nodes and prostate. Methods and Materials: From January to August 2005, 35 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with pelvic IMRT; 7 had nodes defined up to L5-S1 (Group 1), and 28 had nodes defined above L5-S1 (Group 2). Each patient had 2 plans retrospectively generated:more » 1 WP 3DCRT plan using bony landmarks, and 1 EF 3DCRT plan to cover the vascular defined volumes. Dose-volume histograms for the lymph nodes, rectum, bladder, small bowel, and penile bulb were compared by group. Results: For Group 1, WP 3DCRT missed 25% of pelvic nodes with the prescribed dose 45 Gy and missed 18% with the 95% prescribed dose 42.75 Gy, whereas WP IMRT achieved V{sub 45Gy} = 98% and V{sub 42.75Gy} = 100%. Compared with WP 3DCRT, IMRT reduced bladder V{sub 45Gy} by 78%, rectum V{sub 45Gy} by 48%, and small bowel V{sub 45Gy} by 232 cm{sup 3}. EF 3DCRT achieved 95% coverage of nodes for all patients at high cost to critical structures. For Group 2, IMRT decreased bladder V{sub 45Gy} by 90%, rectum V{sub 45Gy} by 54% and small bowel V{sub 45Gy} by 455 cm{sup 3} compared with EF 3DCRT. Conclusion: In this study WP 3DCRT missed a significant percentage of pelvic nodes. Although EF 3DCRT achieved 95% pelvic nodal coverage, it increased critical structure doses. IMRT improved pelvic nodal coverage while decreasing dose to bladder, rectum, small bowel, and penile bulb. For patients with extended node involvement, IMRT especially decreases small bowel dose.« less