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Title: Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

Abstract

Purpose: We investigated whether race was associated with risk of death following brachytherapy-based treatment for localized prostate cancer, adjusting for age, cardiovascular comorbidity, treatment, and established prostate cancer prognostic factors. Methods: The study cohort was composed of 5,360 men with clinical stage T1-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent brachytherapy-based treatment at 20 centers within the 21st Century Oncology consortium. Cox regression multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the risk of death in African-American and Hispanic men compared to that in Caucasian men, adjusting for age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, clinical T stage, year and type of treatment, median income, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Results: After a median follow-up of 3 years, there were 673 deaths. African-American and Hispanic races were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77 and 1.79; 95% confidence intervals, 1.3-2.5 and 1.2-2.7; p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Other factors significantly associated with an increased risk of death included age (p < 0.001), Gleason score of 8 to 10 (p = 0.04), year of brachytherapy (p < 0.001), and history of myocardial infarction treated with stent or coronary artery bypass graft (p < 0.001). Conclusions: After adjustmentmore » for prostate cancer prognostic factors, age, income level, and revascularized cardiovascular comorbidities, African-American and Hispanic races were associated with higher ACM in men with prostate cancer. Additional causative factors need to be identified.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ; ; ;  [4];  [5]
  1. Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States)
  4. 21st Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida (United States)
  5. Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22054389
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 81; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANTIGENS; BRACHYTHERAPY; BYPASSES; CARCINOMAS; CORONARIES; DEATH; HAZARDS; MEN; MORTALITY; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; PROSTATE

Citation Formats

Winkfield, Karen M., E-mail: kwinkfield@partners.org, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Chen Minghui, Dosoretz, Daniel E., Salenius, Sharon A., Katin, Michael, Ross, Rudi, and D'Amico, Anthony V. Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.02.022.
Winkfield, Karen M., E-mail: kwinkfield@partners.org, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Chen Minghui, Dosoretz, Daniel E., Salenius, Sharon A., Katin, Michael, Ross, Rudi, & D'Amico, Anthony V. Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.02.022.
Winkfield, Karen M., E-mail: kwinkfield@partners.org, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Chen Minghui, Dosoretz, Daniel E., Salenius, Sharon A., Katin, Michael, Ross, Rudi, and D'Amico, Anthony V. 2011. "Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.02.022.
@article{osti_22054389,
title = {Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate},
author = {Winkfield, Karen M., E-mail: kwinkfield@partners.org and Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts and Chen Minghui and Dosoretz, Daniel E. and Salenius, Sharon A. and Katin, Michael and Ross, Rudi and D'Amico, Anthony V.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: We investigated whether race was associated with risk of death following brachytherapy-based treatment for localized prostate cancer, adjusting for age, cardiovascular comorbidity, treatment, and established prostate cancer prognostic factors. Methods: The study cohort was composed of 5,360 men with clinical stage T1-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent brachytherapy-based treatment at 20 centers within the 21st Century Oncology consortium. Cox regression multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the risk of death in African-American and Hispanic men compared to that in Caucasian men, adjusting for age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, clinical T stage, year and type of treatment, median income, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Results: After a median follow-up of 3 years, there were 673 deaths. African-American and Hispanic races were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77 and 1.79; 95% confidence intervals, 1.3-2.5 and 1.2-2.7; p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Other factors significantly associated with an increased risk of death included age (p < 0.001), Gleason score of 8 to 10 (p = 0.04), year of brachytherapy (p < 0.001), and history of myocardial infarction treated with stent or coronary artery bypass graft (p < 0.001). Conclusions: After adjustment for prostate cancer prognostic factors, age, income level, and revascularized cardiovascular comorbidities, African-American and Hispanic races were associated with higher ACM in men with prostate cancer. Additional causative factors need to be identified.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.02.022},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 81,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month =
}
  • Purpose: To report 15-year biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes of patients treated with I{sup 125} brachytherapy monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer early in the Seattle experience. Methods and Materials: Two hundred fifteen patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were consecutively treated from 1988 to 1992 with I{sup 125} monotherapy. They were prospectively followed as a tight cohort. They were evaluated for BRFS, CSS, and OS. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate outcomes by pretreatment clinical prognostic factors. BRFS was analyzed by the Phoenix (nadir + 2 ng/mL) definition. CSS and OS weremore » evaluated by chart review, death certificates, and referring physician follow-up notes. Gleason scoring was performed by general pathologists at a community hospital in Seattle. Time to biochemical failure (BF) was calculated and compared by Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: Fifteen-year BRFS for the entire cohort was 80.4%. BRFS by D'Amico risk group classification cohort analysis was 85.9%, 79.9%, and 62.2% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively. Follow-up ranged from 3.6 to 18.4 years; median follow-up was 15.4 years for biochemically free of disease patients. Overall median follow-up was 11.7 years. The median time to BF in those who failed was 5.1 years. CSS was 84%. OS was 37.1%. Average age at time of treatment was 70 years. There was no significant difference in BRFS between low and intermediate risk groups. Conclusion: I{sup 125} monotherapy results in excellent 15-year BRFS and CSS, especially when taking into account the era of treatment effect.« less
  • Purpose: Because limited information exists regarding whether the rate or magnitude of PSA decline following brachytherapy predicts long-term clinical outcomes, we evaluated whether achieving a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy is associated with decreased PSA failure and/or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed our database of early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma patients who underwent brachytherapy, excluding those receiving androgen-deprivation therapy and those with <2 years follow-up. Median and mean pretreatment PSA were 6 ng/mL and 7.16 ng/mL, respectively. By clinical stage, 775 were low risk ({<=}T2a), 126 were intermediate risk (T2b), and 20 were high riskmore » (>T2b). By Gleason score, 840 were low risk ({<=}6), 71 were intermediate risk (7), and 10 were high risk (>7). Patients were treated with brachytherapy only (I-125, n = 779, or Pd-103, n = 47), or brachytherapy + external-beam radiation therapy (n = 95). Median follow-up was 6.3 years. We noted whether nPSA <0.5 ng/mL was achieved and the time to achieve this nadir and tested for associations with pretreatment risk factors. We also determined whether this PSA endpoint was associated with decreased PSA failure or distant metastasis. Results: Absence of high-risk factors in clinical stage ({<=}T2b), Gleason score ({<=}7), and pretreatment PSA ({<=}20 ng/mL) was significantly associated with achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL had significantly higher long-term freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) than nonresponders (5-year FFBF: 95.2 {+-} 0.8% vs. 71.5 {+-} 6.7%; p < 0.0005). Among responders, those who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had higher FFBF than those requiring >5 years (5-year FFBF: 96.7 {+-} 0.7% vs. 80.8 {+-} 4.6%; p < 0.0005). On multivariate analysis, patients who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had significantly higher FFBF than other patients. Conclusions: Pretreatment risk factors (clinical tumor stage, Gleason score, pretreatment PSA) strongly predict for patients achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy, and this cohort had significantly higher long-term FFBF.« less
  • Purpose: To determine whether whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) or prostate-only radiotherapy (PORT) yields improved biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS) in patients with advanced or aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 277 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and at least a 15% likelihood of lymph node involvement who had undergone WPRT (n = 68) or PORT (n = 209) at two referral centers was analyzed. The median radiation dose in both arms was 75.6 Gy. The outcome measure was BDFS, as determined using the prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL definition of failure. BDFS wasmore » calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess for confounding. Treatment-related toxicity was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events guidelines. The median follow-up was 30 months. Results: WPRT patients had more advanced and aggressive disease at baseline (p < .001). The 4-year BDFS rate was 69.4% in the PORT cohort and 86.3% in the WPRT cohort (p = .02). Within the entire cohort, after adjustment for confounding variables, the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (p < .001), Gleason score (p < .001), use of hormonal therapy (p = .002), and use of WPRT (vs. PORT, p = .006) predicted for BDFS. Patients undergoing WPRT had increased acute gastrointestinal toxicity (p = .048), but no significant difference in acute genitourinary toxicity was seen (p = .09). No difference in late toxicity was found. Conclusion: WPRT may yield improved BDFS in patients with advanced or aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma, but results in a greater incidence of acute toxicity.« less
  • Purpose: To estimate the rate of acute and late Grade 3-5 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity after treatment with external beam radiotherapy and permanent source brachytherapy in a multi-institutional, cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions), followed 2-6 weeks later by an interstitial implant using {sup 125}I to deliver an additional 108 Gy. Late genitourinary toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Version 2.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring system was used for all othermore » toxicity. Results: A total of 138 patients from 28 institutions were entered on this study. Acute toxicity information was available in 131 patients, and 127 patients were analyzable for late toxicity. Acute Grade 3 toxicity was documented in 10 of 131 patients (7.6%). No Grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity has been observed. The 18-month month estimate of late Grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.1-6.5). No late Grade 4 or 5 toxicity has been observed. Conclusions: The acute and late morbidity observed in this multi-institutional, cooperative group study is consistent with previous reports from single institutions with significant prostate brachytherapy experience.« less
  • Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer latemore » radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to normal structures or to unimodal radiotherapy techniques.« less