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Title: Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

Abstract

The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences ofmore » spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22038463
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Reviews of Modern Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2008 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6861
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; BCS THEORY; BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CRITICAL TEMPERATURE; FERMI GAS; FERMIONS; GROUND STATES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MEAN-FIELD THEORY; MOMENT OF INERTIA; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RESONANCE; S WAVES; SCATTERING LENGTHS; SPIN ORIENTATION; SUPERFLUIDITY; THERMODYNAMICS; TRAPPING

Citation Formats

Giorgini, Stefano, Pitaevskii, Lev P, Stringari, Sandro, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento. Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1103/REVMODPHYS.80.1215.
Giorgini, Stefano, Pitaevskii, Lev P, Stringari, Sandro, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow, & Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento. Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/REVMODPHYS.80.1215
Giorgini, Stefano, Pitaevskii, Lev P, Stringari, Sandro, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento. Wed . "Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/REVMODPHYS.80.1215.
@article{osti_22038463,
title = {Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases},
author = {Giorgini, Stefano and Pitaevskii, Lev P and Stringari, Sandro and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento},
abstractNote = {The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.},
doi = {10.1103/REVMODPHYS.80.1215},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22038463}, journal = {Reviews of Modern Physics},
issn = {0034-6861},
number = 4,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {10}
}