skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2011dh POINT TO A COMPACT PROGENITOR STAR

Abstract

We report the discovery and detailed monitoring of X-ray emission associated with the Type IIb SN 2011dh using data from the Swift and Chandra satellites, placing it among the best-studied X-ray supernovae (SNe) to date. We further present millimeter and radio data obtained with the Submillimeter Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and the Expanded Very Large Array during the first three weeks after explosion. Combining these observations with early optical photometry, we show that the panchromatic data set is well described by non-thermal synchrotron emission (radio/mm) with inverse Compton scattering (X-ray) of a thermal population of optical photons. In this scenario, the shock partition fractions deviate from equipartition by a factor, ({epsilon}{sub e}/{epsilon}{sub B}) {approx} 30. We derive the properties of the shock wave and the circumstellar environment and find a time-averaged shock velocity of v-bar {approx}0.1c and a progenitor mass-loss rate of M-dot approx. 6 x 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (for an assumed wind velocity, v{sub w} = 1000 km s{sup -1}). We show that these properties are consistent with the sub-class of Type IIb SNe characterized by compact progenitors (Type cIIb) and dissimilar from those with extended progenitors (Type eIIb). Furthermore, wemore » consider the early optical emission in the context of a cooling envelope model to estimate a progenitor radius of R{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} cm, in line with the expectations for a Type cIIb SN. Together, these diagnostics are difficult to reconcile with the extended radius of the putative yellow supergiant progenitor star identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations, unless the stellar density profile is unusual. Finally, we searched for the high-energy shock breakout pulse using X-ray and gamma-ray observations obtained during the purported explosion date range. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor, we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was detectable with current instruments but likely missed due to their limited temporal/spatial coverage. Future all-sky missions will regularly detect shock breakout emission from compact SN progenitors enabling prompt follow-up observations with sensitive multi-wavelength facilities.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10] more »; « less
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)
  3. School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
  4. Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)
  5. Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  6. Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
  7. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)
  8. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  9. Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
  10. CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22037053
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 752; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPTON EFFECT; COSMIC PHOTONS; GAMMA ASTRONOMY; GAMMA RADIATION; PHOTOMETRY; PHOTON EMISSION; PULSES; SHOCK WAVES; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERNOVAE; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Soderberg, A. M., Margutti, R., Zauderer, B. A., Chomiuk, L., Dittmann, J. A., Gurwell, M., Petitpas, G., Alexander, K. D., Krauss, M., Rupen, M., Katz, B., Nakar, E., Sakamoto, T., Kawai, N., Toizumi, T., Morii, M., Hurley, K., Barthelmy, S., Chevalier, R. A., Levesque, E. M., and and others. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2011dh POINT TO A COMPACT PROGENITOR STAR. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/752/2/78.
Soderberg, A. M., Margutti, R., Zauderer, B. A., Chomiuk, L., Dittmann, J. A., Gurwell, M., Petitpas, G., Alexander, K. D., Krauss, M., Rupen, M., Katz, B., Nakar, E., Sakamoto, T., Kawai, N., Toizumi, T., Morii, M., Hurley, K., Barthelmy, S., Chevalier, R. A., Levesque, E. M., & and others. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2011dh POINT TO A COMPACT PROGENITOR STAR. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/752/2/78.
Soderberg, A. M., Margutti, R., Zauderer, B. A., Chomiuk, L., Dittmann, J. A., Gurwell, M., Petitpas, G., Alexander, K. D., Krauss, M., Rupen, M., Katz, B., Nakar, E., Sakamoto, T., Kawai, N., Toizumi, T., Morii, M., Hurley, K., Barthelmy, S., Chevalier, R. A., Levesque, E. M., and and others. Wed . "PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2011dh POINT TO A COMPACT PROGENITOR STAR". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/752/2/78.
@article{osti_22037053,
title = {PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2011dh POINT TO A COMPACT PROGENITOR STAR},
author = {Soderberg, A. M. and Margutti, R. and Zauderer, B. A. and Chomiuk, L. and Dittmann, J. A. and Gurwell, M. and Petitpas, G. and Alexander, K. D. and Krauss, M. and Rupen, M. and Katz, B. and Nakar, E. and Sakamoto, T. and Kawai, N. and Toizumi, T. and Morii, M. and Hurley, K. and Barthelmy, S. and Chevalier, R. A. and Levesque, E. M. and and others},
abstractNote = {We report the discovery and detailed monitoring of X-ray emission associated with the Type IIb SN 2011dh using data from the Swift and Chandra satellites, placing it among the best-studied X-ray supernovae (SNe) to date. We further present millimeter and radio data obtained with the Submillimeter Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and the Expanded Very Large Array during the first three weeks after explosion. Combining these observations with early optical photometry, we show that the panchromatic data set is well described by non-thermal synchrotron emission (radio/mm) with inverse Compton scattering (X-ray) of a thermal population of optical photons. In this scenario, the shock partition fractions deviate from equipartition by a factor, ({epsilon}{sub e}/{epsilon}{sub B}) {approx} 30. We derive the properties of the shock wave and the circumstellar environment and find a time-averaged shock velocity of v-bar {approx}0.1c and a progenitor mass-loss rate of M-dot approx. 6 x 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (for an assumed wind velocity, v{sub w} = 1000 km s{sup -1}). We show that these properties are consistent with the sub-class of Type IIb SNe characterized by compact progenitors (Type cIIb) and dissimilar from those with extended progenitors (Type eIIb). Furthermore, we consider the early optical emission in the context of a cooling envelope model to estimate a progenitor radius of R{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} cm, in line with the expectations for a Type cIIb SN. Together, these diagnostics are difficult to reconcile with the extended radius of the putative yellow supergiant progenitor star identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations, unless the stellar density profile is unusual. Finally, we searched for the high-energy shock breakout pulse using X-ray and gamma-ray observations obtained during the purported explosion date range. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor, we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was detectable with current instruments but likely missed due to their limited temporal/spatial coverage. Future all-sky missions will regularly detect shock breakout emission from compact SN progenitors enabling prompt follow-up observations with sensitive multi-wavelength facilities.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/752/2/78},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 752,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {6}
}