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Title: Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images

Abstract

Conductive atomic-force microscopy (C-AFM) writing is attracting attention as a technique for clarifying the switching mechanism of resistive random-access memory by providing a wide area filled with filaments, which can be regarded as one filament with large radius. The writing area on a nickel-oxide (NiO) film formed by conductive atomic-force microscopy was observed by scanning electron microscope, and a correlation between the contrast in a secondary-electron image (SEI) and the resistance written by C-AFM was revealed. In addition, the dependence of the SEI contrast on the beam accelerating voltage (V{sub accel}) suggests that the resistance-change effect occurs near the surface of the NiO film. As for the effects of electron irradiation and vacuum annealing on the C-AFM writing area, it was shown that the resistance-change effect is caused by exchange of oxygen with the atmosphere at the surface of the NiO film. This result suggests that the low-resistance and high-resistance areas are, respectively, p-type Ni{sub 1+{delta}}O ({delta} < 0) and insulating (stoichiometric) or n-type Ni{sub 1+{delta}}O ({delta}{>=} 0).

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Department of Information and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)
  2. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22036728
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CORRELATIONS; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRONS; FILAMENTS; IMAGES; IRRADIATION; NICKEL OXIDES; OXYGEN; RADIATION EFFECTS; RANDOMNESS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; STOICHIOMETRY; SURFACES; THIN FILMS

Citation Formats

Kinoshita, K., Kishida, S., Tottori University Electronic Display Research Center, 522-2 Koyama-Kita, Tottori 680-0941, and Yoda, T. Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3638708.
Kinoshita, K., Kishida, S., Tottori University Electronic Display Research Center, 522-2 Koyama-Kita, Tottori 680-0941, & Yoda, T. Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3638708.
Kinoshita, K., Kishida, S., Tottori University Electronic Display Research Center, 522-2 Koyama-Kita, Tottori 680-0941, and Yoda, T. Thu . "Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3638708.
@article{osti_22036728,
title = {Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images},
author = {Kinoshita, K. and Kishida, S. and Tottori University Electronic Display Research Center, 522-2 Koyama-Kita, Tottori 680-0941 and Yoda, T.},
abstractNote = {Conductive atomic-force microscopy (C-AFM) writing is attracting attention as a technique for clarifying the switching mechanism of resistive random-access memory by providing a wide area filled with filaments, which can be regarded as one filament with large radius. The writing area on a nickel-oxide (NiO) film formed by conductive atomic-force microscopy was observed by scanning electron microscope, and a correlation between the contrast in a secondary-electron image (SEI) and the resistance written by C-AFM was revealed. In addition, the dependence of the SEI contrast on the beam accelerating voltage (V{sub accel}) suggests that the resistance-change effect occurs near the surface of the NiO film. As for the effects of electron irradiation and vacuum annealing on the C-AFM writing area, it was shown that the resistance-change effect is caused by exchange of oxygen with the atmosphere at the surface of the NiO film. This result suggests that the low-resistance and high-resistance areas are, respectively, p-type Ni{sub 1+{delta}}O ({delta} < 0) and insulating (stoichiometric) or n-type Ni{sub 1+{delta}}O ({delta}{>=} 0).},
doi = {10.1063/1.3638708},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 6,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {9}
}