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Title: Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

Abstract

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center, Clemson, SC (United States); Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
219345
Report Number(s):
DOE/MC/29061-96/C0679; CONF-9510109-26
ON: DE96008955; TRN: AHC29609%%76
DOE Contract Number:
FC21-92MC29061
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Advanced turbine systems (ATS) annual review, Morgantown, WV (United States), 17-18 Oct 1995; Other Information: PBD: [1995]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; VANES; COOLING; GAS TURBINES; HEAT PIPES; THERMAL STRESSES; ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Citation Formats

Langston, L., and Faghri, A. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Langston, L., & Faghri, A. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling. United States.
Langston, L., and Faghri, A. 1995. "Heat pipe turbine vane cooling". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/219345.
@article{osti_219345,
title = {Heat pipe turbine vane cooling},
author = {Langston, L. and Faghri, A.},
abstractNote = {The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1995,
month =
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increasemore » the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.« less
  • A numerical model was developed to simulate transient performance of a heat pipe turbine vane under typical gas turbine engine conditions. Curvilinear coordinates were used to describe the three-dimensional wall and wick heat conduction coupled with the quasi-one-dimensional vapor flow. A unique numerical procedure including two iterative estimate-correction processes was proposed to efficiently solve the governing equations along with the boundary conditions. Comparisons with experimental results validated the numerical model and the solution method. A detailed numerical simulation of the heat pipe vane`s transient performance indicated the benefits of incorporating heat pipe vane cooling as well as the areas wheremore » precautions should be taken while designing heat pipe vanes.« less
  • This paper presents data showing the improvement in cooling effectiveness of turbine vanes through the application of water-air cooling technology in an industrial/utility engine application. The technique utilizes a finely dispersed water-in-air mixture that impinges on the internal surfaces of turbine airfoils to produce very high cooling rates. An airfoil was designed to contain a standard impingement tube, which distributes the water-air mixture over the inner surface of the airfoil. The water flash vaporizes off the airfoil inner wall. The resulting mixture of air-steam-water droplets is then routed through a pin fin array in the trailing edge region of themore » airfoil where additional water is vaporized. The mixture then exits the airfoil into the gas path through trailing edge slots. Experimental measurements were made in a three-vane, linear, two-dimensional cascade. The principal independent parameters--Mach number, Reynolds number, wall-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas mass flow ratio--were maintained over ranges consistent with typical engine conditions. Five impingement tubes were utilized to study geometry scaling, impingement tube-to-airfoil wall gap spacing, impingement tube hole diameter, and impingement tube hole patterns. The test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, gas-to-coolant temperature ratio, water- and air-coolant-to-gas mass flow ratios, and impingement tube geometry. Heat transfer effectiveness data obtained in this program demonstrated that overall cooling levels typical for air-cooled vanes could be achieved with the water-air cooling technique with reductions of cooling air flow of significantly more than 50%.« less
  • Heat-Pipe Heat-Exchangers (HPHE) are passive systems that have recently seen application in energy recovery (Mathur, 1997). A HPHE consists of individual closed end heat pipe tubes that are charged with a suitable working fluid. In these systems, the working fluid evaporates on one side of the heat exchanger and condenses over the other end of the heat exchanger. The condensed fluid returns back to the evaporator section through the capillary action of the wick. The performance of a HPHE system can be improved by the raising the condenser portion of the heat exchanger which facilitates effective return of the condensatemore » back to the evaporator. HPHE can be used with air conditioning systems as retrofits and in new applications. For retrofit applications, the operating costs are reduced because of the reduction in the energy (kWh) and peak demand (kW) consumptions. For new installations, the heating and cooling equipment can be of smaller capacity which will result in lower equipment and operating costs. During the summer season, indirect evaporative cooling can also be used to further enhance the performance of the air conditioning system. When operated during both the heating and cooling seasons, a HPHE yields four types of savings: (i) Heating equipment savings (ii) Cooling equipment savings (iii) Heating operating savings (iv) Cooling operating savings. Savings in the energy consumption for both heating and cooling were calculated with the HPHE for 30 cities with widely different climactic conditions. The payback periods for most of the cities were less than 1 year. If indirect evaporative cooling is used during the summer season, more energy savings would be realized on an yearly basis along with further reductions in the peak demand. In this paper, the author has simulated the performance of a HPHE with indirect evaporative cooling using the BIN weather data.« less