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Title: Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

Abstract

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distributionmore » of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ;  [2];  [1]
  1. Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)
  2. Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21613002
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.03.030; PII: S0956-053X(12)00141-9; Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ARSENIC; BARIUM; CHROMIUM; COAL; COMPRESSION STRENGTH; CONCRETES; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; FLEXURAL STRENGTH; FLY ASH; HEAVY METALS; ICP MASS SPECTROSCOPY; LEACHING; MERCURY; PARTICLE SIZE; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SELENIUM; SILVER; SOLID WASTES; URBAN AREAS; X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS; AEROSOL WASTES; ALKALINE EARTH METALS; ASHES; BUILDING MATERIALS; CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; COMBUSTION PRODUCTS; DISSOLUTION; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ELEMENTS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; MATERIALS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; METALS; MICROSCOPY; NONDESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS; RESIDUES; SEMIMETALS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SIZE; SPECTROSCOPY; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; WASTES; X-RAY EMISSION ANALYSIS

Citation Formats

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E., Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu, Eklund, Sven, Joshi, Anupam R., and Kupwade-Patil, Kunal. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.03.030.
Ivan Diaz-Loya, E., Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu, Eklund, Sven, Joshi, Anupam R., & Kupwade-Patil, Kunal. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash. United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.03.030.
Ivan Diaz-Loya, E., Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu, Eklund, Sven, Joshi, Anupam R., and Kupwade-Patil, Kunal. Wed . "Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash". United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.03.030.
@article{osti_21613002,
title = {Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash},
author = {Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. and Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu and Eklund, Sven and Joshi, Anupam R. and Kupwade-Patil, Kunal},
abstractNote = {Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.},
doi = {10.1016/j.wasman.2012.03.030},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 8,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2012},
month = {Wed Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2012}
}
  • Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Japan is regulated under the hazardous waste regulation Waste under Special Control, according to the Amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, because it contains high concentrations of heavy metals which are available for leaching. To evaluate the toxicity of fly ash, a fly ash leachate was prepared according to the Japanese standard leaching procedure. The chemical analysis of the leachate showed that possibly one of the most toxic substances was cadmium. The toxicity of the leachate and the cadmium was determined by algal assay and a Daphnia acutemore » toxicity test. The results showed that the leachate was about seven times more toxic to the growth of algae and 20 to 30 times more toxic to the survival of Daphnia than expected from its cadmium concentration. The toxicity interaction between cadmium and the other constituents in the leachate was also examined. The toxicity of cadmium showed an additive effect with the other constituents in the leachate in algal assay. In the Daphnia test, however, cadmium showed an antagonistic effect.« less
  • Many highly urbanized cities are faced with the problem of disposal of municipal solid waste because of the scarcity of land available for landfilling. One possible solution is the incineration of the municipal solid waste. After incineration, about 20% by weight of fly ash and other residues are produced. Investigations into the physical and engineering properties of the fly ash derived from municipal solid-waste incineration indicate that the material is a potential source of fill material, with low compacted density and high strength. The fly ash was relatively free draining, with permeability of the same order of magnitude as coarsemore » grained materials. The use of the fly ash as an admixture in the stabilization of a soft marine clay showed improved undrained shear strengths and lower compressive properties. Leachate tests on the samples of fly ash initially indicated trace quantities of cadmium and chromium in excess of the acceptable drinking-water limits. After leaching for 28 days, the concentrations fell below the drinking-water limits. Lime and cement can be used to stabilize the fly ash. The concentrations of heavy metals in the leachates of lime and cement treated fly ash were nondetectable.« less
  • Highlights: ► Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ► Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ► Increasing heavy metal stability. ► Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA)more » leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.« less
  • The purification of incinerator gases produces large quantities of fly ash and used lime [a combination referred to as air pollution control residues (APCR)], both of which contain elevated levels of metals. This paper describes biological solubilization assays utilizing Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to leach metals from APCR to render them nonhazardous. The multistage solubilization process involves an alkaline aqueous phase that removes some Pb. In the second phase, the APCR are acidified to pH 4 with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, then inoculated with a bacterial culture that has been acclimated in the presence of 2% Fe (FeCl{sub 3}). Several rinses and decantingsmore » achieve removal of the leachable metals. The final step involves the addition of Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and an increase in the treatment pH prior to the final filtration. Viability of thiobacilli in APCR was poor. Despite this problem, the removal of Pb was 35.9%, 46.0%, and 68.7%, which demonstrates greater metal removal with increased APCR contamination. Zn removal varied from 68.2% to 79.5%, which was positively correlated to the level of residue contamination, whereas Cu was removed in the proportions of 26.9% to 68.2%. Cadmium removal appeared to be independent of the level of Cd in the APCR; Cd was removed to the greatest degree, with a variation of 92.0% to 94.7%. The treated APCR were tested using four different leachate tests.« less
  • This article describes the first-time characterization of specific dioxins and benzofurans in municipal waste from incinerator fly ash. Only the high resolution of the mass spectrometer in combination with high resolution gas chromatography allowed for the measurement of these environmental health hazards in the range of low to high parts-per-trillion. 44 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.