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Title: Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry

Abstract

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomesmore » a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I de Castellon, Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon de la Plana, Espana (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21612972
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.001; PII: S0956-053X(11)00538-1; Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; DIGESTION; FLUORESCENT LAMPS; GLASS; LEGAL ASPECTS; MERCURY; MICROWAVE RADIATION; PHOSPHORUS; POWDERS; VAPORS; WASHING; WASTES; CLEANING; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; ELEMENTS; FLUIDS; GASES; LIGHT BULBS; METALS; NONMETALS; RADIATIONS; SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Rey-Raap, Natalia, and Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.001.
Rey-Raap, Natalia, & Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry. United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.001.
Rey-Raap, Natalia, and Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es. 2012. "Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry". United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.001.
@article{osti_21612972,
title = {Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry},
author = {Rey-Raap, Natalia and Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es},
abstractNote = {Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.},
doi = {10.1016/j.wasman.2011.12.001},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 5,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month = 5
}
  • Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability ofmore » sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of ARF (for example, 50%) can be refunded. On the other hand, the government and Environmental Protection Agency should support and encourage recycling companies of CFLs both technically and financially in the first place.« less
  • This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushedmore » with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 deg. C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg{sup -1} of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg{sup -1}.« less
  • A procedure for determination of both organic and inorganic mercury in biological materials by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is described. Organic mercury is extracted as a chloride derivative by benzene and reextracted by a thiosulfate solution. Inorganic mercury is converted into a methyl chloride derivative by methanolic tetramethyltin prior to extraction. A 20-..mu..L aliquot of the thiosulfate solution is injected into the graphite furnace. The calibration is linear up to 12 ng of Hg/20 ..mu..L injected. The limit of detection of mercury is 0.04 ng of Hg/20 ..mu..L injected. The organic mercury thiosulfate extract was treated with CuCl/submore » 2/, reextracted in the benzene layer, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GLC) for speciation.« less
  • An atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method for determining mercury levels in liquid samples to the parts per billion range was determined. The method is attractive because of the ease of application and the accuracy and precision of the results. Liquid samples may be analyzed that are as small as one milliliter. 6 references, 1 figure.
  • One approach to electrodeposition of trace materials followed by absorption spectroscopy is to carry out the process at a graphite tube electrode, which can then be placed directly into an electrodeposition flow cell which uses a graphite furnace tube as the working electrode electrothermal atomizer. Described is an electrode in a thin-layer, flow-through configuration. This design enhances deposition efficiency and sensitivity when compared with the use of an open tubular electrode. Application of the flow cell for the determination of mercury in water is demonstrated.