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Title: Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel

Abstract

The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used asmore » the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. HJF, AFRL/RHPB Bldg 837, 2729 R Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-5707 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21587795
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 254; Journal Issue: 2; Conference: TRAC 2008/2009 meeting: 2008 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference;2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference, West Chester, OH (United States);West Chester, OH (United States), 14-17 Apr 2008;27-30 Apr 2009; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2010.04.022; PII: S0041-008X(11)00046-9; Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0041-008X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALTERNATIVE FUELS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DNA; INHALATION; JETS; MALES; NAPHTHALENE; NEOPLASMS; RATS; SIMULATION; SPECIFICATIONS; STANDARDS; SYNTHESIS; TOXICITY; ANIMALS; AROMATICS; CONDENSED AROMATICS; DISEASES; EVALUATION; FUELS; HYDROCARBONS; INTAKE; MAMMALS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; RODENTS; VERTEBRATES

Citation Formats

Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil, and Sterner, Teresa R. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2010.04.022.
Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil, & Sterner, Teresa R. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2010.04.022.
Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil, and Sterner, Teresa R. Fri . "Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2010.04.022.
@article{osti_21587795,
title = {Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel},
author = {Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil and Sterner, Teresa R},
abstractNote = {The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2010.04.022},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
issn = {0041-008X},
number = 2,
volume = 254,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {7}
}