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Title: Interfractional Variations in the Setup of Pelvic Bony Anatomy and Soft Tissue, and Their Implications on the Delivery of Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

Abstract

Purpose: To quantify daily variations in the anatomy of patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma, to estimate their effect on dose distribution, and to evaluate the effectiveness of current standard planning and setup approaches employed in proton therapy. Methods: We used series of computed tomography data, which included the pretreatment scan, and between 21 and 43 in-room scans acquired on different treatment days, from 10 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Morristown Memorial Hospital. Variations in femur rotation angles, thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and physical depth to the distal surface of the prostate for lateral beam arrangement were recorded. Proton dose distributions were planned with the standard approach. Daily variations in the location of the prescription isodose were evaluated. Results: In all 10 datasets, substantial variation was observed in the lateral tissue thickness (standard deviation of 1.7-3.6 mm for individual patients, variations of >5 mm from the planning computed tomography observed in all series), and femur rotation angle (standard deviation between 1.3{sup o} and 4.8{sup o}, with the maximum excursion exceeding 10{sup o} in 6 of 10 datasets). Shifts in the position of treated volume (98% isodose) were correlated with the variations in the lateral tissue thickness.more » Conclusions: Analysis suggests that, combined with image-guided setup verification, the range compensator expansion technique prevents loss of dose to target from femur rotation and soft-tissue deformation, in the majority of cases. Anatomic changes coupled with the uncertainties of particle penetration in tissue restrict possibilities for margin reduction in proton therapy of prostate cancer.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ;  [1];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Morristown Memorial Hospital, Morristown, NJ (United States)
  4. Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21587588
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.006; PII: S0360-3016(10)03052-X; Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CARCINOMAS; CAT SCANNING; DAILY VARIATIONS; FEMUR; PROSTATE; PROTONS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; BARYONS; BODY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; DISEASES; DOSES; ELEMENTARY PARTICLES; FERMIONS; GLANDS; HADRONS; MALE GENITALS; MEDICINE; NEOPLASMS; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; NUCLEONS; ORGANS; RADIOLOGY; SKELETON; THERAPY; TOMOGRAPHY; VARIATIONS

Citation Formats

Trofimov, Alexei, E-mail: atrofimov@partners.org, Nguyen, Paul L., Efstathiou, Jason A., Wang, Yi, Lu, Hsiao-Ming, Engelsman, Martijn, Merrick, Scott, Cheng, Chee-Wai, Wong, James R., and Zietman, Anthony L.. Interfractional Variations in the Setup of Pelvic Bony Anatomy and Soft Tissue, and Their Implications on the Delivery of Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.006.
Trofimov, Alexei, E-mail: atrofimov@partners.org, Nguyen, Paul L., Efstathiou, Jason A., Wang, Yi, Lu, Hsiao-Ming, Engelsman, Martijn, Merrick, Scott, Cheng, Chee-Wai, Wong, James R., & Zietman, Anthony L.. Interfractional Variations in the Setup of Pelvic Bony Anatomy and Soft Tissue, and Their Implications on the Delivery of Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.006.
Trofimov, Alexei, E-mail: atrofimov@partners.org, Nguyen, Paul L., Efstathiou, Jason A., Wang, Yi, Lu, Hsiao-Ming, Engelsman, Martijn, Merrick, Scott, Cheng, Chee-Wai, Wong, James R., and Zietman, Anthony L.. 2011. "Interfractional Variations in the Setup of Pelvic Bony Anatomy and Soft Tissue, and Their Implications on the Delivery of Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.006.
@article{osti_21587588,
title = {Interfractional Variations in the Setup of Pelvic Bony Anatomy and Soft Tissue, and Their Implications on the Delivery of Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer},
author = {Trofimov, Alexei, E-mail: atrofimov@partners.org and Nguyen, Paul L. and Efstathiou, Jason A. and Wang, Yi and Lu, Hsiao-Ming and Engelsman, Martijn and Merrick, Scott and Cheng, Chee-Wai and Wong, James R. and Zietman, Anthony L.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To quantify daily variations in the anatomy of patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma, to estimate their effect on dose distribution, and to evaluate the effectiveness of current standard planning and setup approaches employed in proton therapy. Methods: We used series of computed tomography data, which included the pretreatment scan, and between 21 and 43 in-room scans acquired on different treatment days, from 10 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Morristown Memorial Hospital. Variations in femur rotation angles, thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and physical depth to the distal surface of the prostate for lateral beam arrangement were recorded. Proton dose distributions were planned with the standard approach. Daily variations in the location of the prescription isodose were evaluated. Results: In all 10 datasets, substantial variation was observed in the lateral tissue thickness (standard deviation of 1.7-3.6 mm for individual patients, variations of >5 mm from the planning computed tomography observed in all series), and femur rotation angle (standard deviation between 1.3{sup o} and 4.8{sup o}, with the maximum excursion exceeding 10{sup o} in 6 of 10 datasets). Shifts in the position of treated volume (98% isodose) were correlated with the variations in the lateral tissue thickness. Conclusions: Analysis suggests that, combined with image-guided setup verification, the range compensator expansion technique prevents loss of dose to target from femur rotation and soft-tissue deformation, in the majority of cases. Anatomic changes coupled with the uncertainties of particle penetration in tissue restrict possibilities for margin reduction in proton therapy of prostate cancer.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.006},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month = 7
}
  • Purpose: To quantify and compare the impact of interfractional setup and anatomic variations on proton therapy (PT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer randomized to receive passive-scattering PT (n=10) and IMRT (n=10) were selected. For both modalities, clinical treatment plans included 50.4 Gy(RBE) to prostate and proximal seminal vesicles, and prostate-only boost to 79.2 Gy(RBE) in 1.8 Gy(RBE) per fraction. Implanted fiducials were used for prostate localization and endorectal balloons were used for immobilization. Patients in PT and IMRT arms received weekly computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CTmore » (CBCT) scans, respectively. The planned dose was recalculated on each weekly image, scaled, and mapped onto the planning CT using deformable registration. The resulting accumulated dose distribution over the entire treatment course was compared with the planned dose using dose-volume histogram (DVH) and γ analysis. Results: The target conformity index remained acceptable after accumulation. The largest decrease in the average prostate D{sub 98} was 2.2 and 0.7 Gy for PT and IMRT, respectively. On average, the mean dose to bladder increased by 3.26 ± 7.51 Gy and 1.97 ± 6.84 Gy for PT and IMRT, respectively. These values were 0.74 ± 2.37 and 0.56 ± 1.90 for rectum. Differences between changes in DVH indices were not statistically significant between modalities. All volume indices remained within the protocol tolerances after accumulation. The average pass rate for the γ analysis, assuming tolerances of 3 mm and 3%, for clinical target volume, bladder, rectum, and whole patient for PT/IMRT were 100/100, 92.6/99, 99.2/100, and 97.2/99.4, respectively. Conclusion: The differences in target coverage and organs at risk dose deviations for PT and IMRT were not statistically significant under the guidelines of this protocol.« less
  • Purpose: Toxicity from pelvic irradiation could be reduced if fields were limited to likely areas of nodal involvement rather than using the standard 'four-field box.' We employed a novel magnetic resonance lymphangiographic technique to highlight the likely sites of occult nodal metastasis from prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighteen prostate cancer patients with pathologically confirmed node-positive disease had a total of 69 pathologic nodes identifiable by lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI and semiquantitative nodal analysis. Fourteen of these nodes were in the para-aortic region, and 55 were in the pelvis. The position of each of these malignant nodes was mapped to amore » common template based on its relation to skeletal or vascular anatomy. Results: Relative to skeletal anatomy, nodes covered a diffuse volume from the mid lumbar spine to the superior pubic ramus and along the sacrum and pelvic side walls. In contrast, the nodal metastases mapped much more tightly relative to the large pelvic vessels. A proposed pelvic clinical target volume to encompass the region at greatest risk of containing occult nodal metastases would include a 2.0-cm radial expansion volume around the distal common iliac and proximal external and internal iliac vessels that would encompass 94.5% of the pelvic nodes at risk as defined by our node-positive prostate cancer patient cohort. Conclusions: Nodal metastases from prostate cancer are largely localized along the major pelvic vasculature. Defining nodal radiation treatment portals based on vascular rather than bony anatomy may allow for a significant decrease in normal pelvic tissue irradiation and its associated toxicities.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the effects of interfractional anatomy and setup variations on plans with anterior-oblique vs. lateral beams for prostate cancer pencil beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattered (PS) proton therapy. Methods: Six patients with low/intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with PS proton therapy at our institution were selected. All patients underwent weekly verification CT scans. Implanted fiducials were used for localization, and endorectal balloons for prostate immobilization. New PBS plans with lateral beams, as well as PBS and PS plans with anterior-oblique beams (±35 deg) were created. PBS plans used two different spot sizes: ∼10mm (large) and ∼5mm (medium)more » sigma at 25cm range and optimized as single-field-uniform-dose with ∼8% non-uniformity. No range uncertainty margins were applied in PBS plans to maximize rectal sparing. Field-specific apertures were used when planning with large spots to sharpen the penumbrae. The planned dose was recomputed on each weekly CT with fiducials aligned to the simulation CT, scaled and accumulated via deformable image registration. Results: The dose volume analysis showed that although difference between planned and accumulated dose remains negligible for plans with conventional lateral beams using both PS and PBS, this is not the case for plans with anterior beams. The target coverage in anterior plans was largely degraded due to the variations in the beam path length and the absence of range margins. The average prostate D95 was reduced by 7.5/15.9% (using PS/PBS) after accumulation for anterior plans, compared with 0/0.4% for lateral plans. The average mean dose in organs-at-risk decreased by 1% for lateral and 2% for anterior plans, similarly for PS and PBS. Spot size did not affect the dose changes. Conclusion: Prostate plans using anterior beams may undergo clinically relevant interfractional dose degradation. Corrective strategies guided by in-vivo range measurements should be studied before clinical application of this technique.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of variations in pelvic dimensions on the dose delivered to the target volumes and the organs at risk (OARs) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) to be treated with whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT) in an attempt to define the hostile pelvis in terms of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 45 men with high-risk PCa to be treated with WPRT, the target volumes and the OARs were delineated, the dose constraints for the OARs were defined, and treatment plans were generated according to themore » Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0924 protocol. Six dimensions to reflect the depth, width, and height of the bony pelvis were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from the planning computed tomographic scans. The minimum dose (D{sub min}), maximum dose (D{sub max}), and mean dose (D{sub mean}) for the target volumes and OARs and the partial volumes of each of these structures receiving a specified dose (V{sub D}) were calculated from the dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The data from the DVHs were correlated with the pelvic dimensions and indexes. Results: According to an overall hostility score (OHS) calculation, 25 patients were grouped as having a hospitable pelvis and 20 as having a hostile pelvis. Regarding the OHS grouping, the DVHs for the bladder, bowel bag, left femoral head, and right femoral head differed in favor of the hospitable pelvis group, and the DVHs for the rectum differed for a range of lower doses in favor of the hospitable pelvis group. Conclusions: Pelvimetry might be used as a guide to define the challenging anatomy or the hostile pelvis in terms of treatment planning for IMRT in patients with high-risk PCa to be treated with WPRT.« less
  • Purpose: To describe the relative positions and motions of the prostate, pelvic bony anatomy, and intraprostatic gold fiducial markers during daily electronic portal localization of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients were treated supine with definitive external radiotherapy according to an on-line target localization protocol using three or four intraprostatic gold fiducial markers and an electronic portal imaging device. Daily pretherapy and through-treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were obtained for each of four treatment fields. The patients' pelvic bony anatomy, intraprostatic gold markers, and a best visual match to the target (i.e., prostate) were identified on simulationmore » digitally reconstructed radiographs and during daily treatment setup and delivery. These data provided quantitative inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion, its position relative to the bony anatomy, and the individual intraprostatic fiducial markers. Treatment planning margins, with and without on-line localization, were subsequently compared. Results: A total of 22,266 data points were obtained from daily pretherapy and through-treatment EPIs. The pretherapy three-dimensional (3D) average displacement of the fiducial markers, as a surrogate for the prostate, was 5.6 mm, which improved to 2.8 mm after use of the localization protocol. The bony anatomy 3D average displacement was 4.4 mm both before and after localization to the prostate (p = 0.46). Along the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) axes, the average prostate displacement improved from 2.5, 3.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively, before localization to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.1 mm after (all p < 0.001). The pretherapy to through-treatment position of the bony landmarks worsened from 1.7 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.001) in the SI axis, remained statistically unchanged at 2.8 mm (p = 0.39) in the AP axis, and improved from 2.0 to 1.2 mm in the RL axis (p < 0.001). There was no significant intrafractional displacement of prostate position or bony anatomic landmarks. An intermarker distance was identified for all fiducial markers, and 96 were followed daily. Seventy-nine percent had a standard deviation of <1 mm, and 96% were <1.5 mm. Margins were 5.1, 7.3, and 5.0 mm in the SI, AP, and RL axes, respectively, before localization and 2.7, 2.9, and 2.8 mm after localization. Conclusions: Significant interfractional motion exists for patients' prostate and pelvic bony anatomy. However, these move independently, so the pelvic bony anatomy should not be used as a surrogate for prostate motion. Fiducial markers are stable within the prostate and allow significant margin reduction when used for on-line localization of the prostate.« less