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Title: A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B

Abstract

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) serve as powerful probes of the early universe, with their luminous afterglows revealing the locations and physical properties of star-forming galaxies at the highest redshifts, and potentially locating first-generation (Population III) stars. Since GRB afterglows have intrinsically very simple spectra, they allow robust redshifts from low signal-to-noise spectroscopy, or photometry. Here we present a photometric redshift of z {approx} 9.4 for the Swift detected GRB 090429B based on deep observations with Gemini-North, the Very Large Telescope, and the GRB Optical and Near-infrared Detector. Assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud dust law (which has been found in a majority of GRB sight lines), the 90% likelihood range for the redshift is 9.06 < z < 9.52, although there is a low-probability tail toward somewhat lower redshifts. Adopting Milky Way or Large Magellanic Cloud dust laws leads to very similar conclusions, while a Maiolino law does allow somewhat lower redshift solutions, though in all cases the most likely redshift is found to be z > 7. The non-detection of the host galaxy to deep limits (Y(AB) {approx} 28, which would correspond roughly to 0.001L* at z = 1) in our late-time optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescopemore » strongly supports the extreme-redshift origin of GRB 090429B, since we would expect to have detected any low-z galaxy, even if it were highly dusty. Finally, the energetics of GRB 090429B are comparable to those of other GRBs and suggest that its progenitor is not greatly different from those of lower redshift bursts.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [4];  [5]; ; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ; ;  [10]; ;  [11]
  1. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)
  4. Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)
  5. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  6. Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85740 Garching (Germany)
  7. European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
  8. INAF-IASF Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)
  9. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  10. Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
  11. Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21578361
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 736; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/7; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AFTERGLOW; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; DUSTS; MAGELLANIC CLOUDS; MILKY WAY; PHOTOMETRY; RED SHIFT; COSMIC RADIATION; GALAXIES; IONIZING RADIATIONS; PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION; RADIATIONS

Citation Formats

Cucchiara, A., Fox, D. B., Wu, X. F., Toma, K., Levan, A. J., Tanvir, N. R., Rowlinson, A., Ukwatta, T. N., Berger, E., Kruehler, T., Greiner, J., Olivares, F. E., Yoldas, A. Kuepcue, Amati, L., Sakamoto, T., Roth, K., Stephens, A., Fritz, Alexander, Fynbo, J. P. U., and Hjorth, J., E-mail: acucchiara@lbl.gov. A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/7.
Cucchiara, A., Fox, D. B., Wu, X. F., Toma, K., Levan, A. J., Tanvir, N. R., Rowlinson, A., Ukwatta, T. N., Berger, E., Kruehler, T., Greiner, J., Olivares, F. E., Yoldas, A. Kuepcue, Amati, L., Sakamoto, T., Roth, K., Stephens, A., Fritz, Alexander, Fynbo, J. P. U., & Hjorth, J., E-mail: acucchiara@lbl.gov. A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/7.
Cucchiara, A., Fox, D. B., Wu, X. F., Toma, K., Levan, A. J., Tanvir, N. R., Rowlinson, A., Ukwatta, T. N., Berger, E., Kruehler, T., Greiner, J., Olivares, F. E., Yoldas, A. Kuepcue, Amati, L., Sakamoto, T., Roth, K., Stephens, A., Fritz, Alexander, Fynbo, J. P. U., and Hjorth, J., E-mail: acucchiara@lbl.gov. Wed . "A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/7.
@article{osti_21578361,
title = {A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B},
author = {Cucchiara, A. and Fox, D. B. and Wu, X. F. and Toma, K. and Levan, A. J. and Tanvir, N. R. and Rowlinson, A. and Ukwatta, T. N. and Berger, E. and Kruehler, T. and Greiner, J. and Olivares, F. E. and Yoldas, A. Kuepcue and Amati, L. and Sakamoto, T. and Roth, K. and Stephens, A. and Fritz, Alexander and Fynbo, J. P. U. and Hjorth, J., E-mail: acucchiara@lbl.gov},
abstractNote = {Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) serve as powerful probes of the early universe, with their luminous afterglows revealing the locations and physical properties of star-forming galaxies at the highest redshifts, and potentially locating first-generation (Population III) stars. Since GRB afterglows have intrinsically very simple spectra, they allow robust redshifts from low signal-to-noise spectroscopy, or photometry. Here we present a photometric redshift of z {approx} 9.4 for the Swift detected GRB 090429B based on deep observations with Gemini-North, the Very Large Telescope, and the GRB Optical and Near-infrared Detector. Assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud dust law (which has been found in a majority of GRB sight lines), the 90% likelihood range for the redshift is 9.06 < z < 9.52, although there is a low-probability tail toward somewhat lower redshifts. Adopting Milky Way or Large Magellanic Cloud dust laws leads to very similar conclusions, while a Maiolino law does allow somewhat lower redshift solutions, though in all cases the most likely redshift is found to be z > 7. The non-detection of the host galaxy to deep limits (Y(AB) {approx} 28, which would correspond roughly to 0.001L* at z = 1) in our late-time optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescope strongly supports the extreme-redshift origin of GRB 090429B, since we would expect to have detected any low-z galaxy, even if it were highly dusty. Finally, the energetics of GRB 090429B are comparable to those of other GRBs and suggest that its progenitor is not greatly different from those of lower redshift bursts.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/7},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 736,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {7}
}