skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: TESTING THE JET QUENCHING PARADIGM WITH AN ULTRADEEP OBSERVATION OF A STEADILY SOFT STATE BLACK HOLE

Abstract

We present ultradeep radio observations with the Expanded Very Large Array of 4U 1957+11, a Galactic black hole (BH) candidate X-ray binary known to exist in a persistent soft X-ray state. We derive a stringent upper limit of 11.4 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}) at 5-7 GHz, which provides the most rigorous upper limit to date on the presence of jets in a soft state BH X-ray binary (BHXB). X-ray, UV, and optical fluxes obtained within a few weeks of the radio data can be explained by thermal emission from the disk. At this X-ray luminosity, a hard state BHXB that follows the established empirical radio-X-ray correlation would be at least 330-810 times brighter at radio frequencies, depending on the distance to 4U 1957+11. This jet quenching of >2.5 orders of magnitude is greater than some models predict and implies that the jets are prevented from being launched altogether in the soft state. 4U 1957+11 is also more than one order of magnitude fainter than the faintest of the 'radio-quiet' population of hard state BHs. In addition, we show that, on average, soft state stellar-mass BHs probably have fainter jets than most active galactic nuclei in a state equivalent to themore » soft state. These results have implications for the conditions required for powerful, relativistic jets to form and provide a new empirical constraint for time- and accretion mode-dependent jet models, furthering our understanding of jet production and accretion onto BHs.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [4]
  1. Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  2. International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)
  3. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
  4. Faulkes Telescope Project, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21565452
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 739; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/739/1/L19; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8205
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; BINARY STARS; BLACK HOLES; EMISSION; JET MODEL; JETS; QUENCHING; RADIOWAVE RADIATION; SOFT X RADIATION; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; IONIZING RADIATIONS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; PARTICLE MODELS; RADIATIONS; STARS; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Russell, D. M., Yang, Y. J., Miller-Jones, J. C. A., Maccarone, T. J., Fender, R. P., and Lewis, F., E-mail: d.m.russell@uva.nl, E-mail: y.j.yang@uva.nl, E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au, E-mail: t.j.maccarone@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: r.fender@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: fraser.lewis@faulkes-telescope.com. TESTING THE JET QUENCHING PARADIGM WITH AN ULTRADEEP OBSERVATION OF A STEADILY SOFT STATE BLACK HOLE. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/739/1/L19.
Russell, D. M., Yang, Y. J., Miller-Jones, J. C. A., Maccarone, T. J., Fender, R. P., & Lewis, F., E-mail: d.m.russell@uva.nl, E-mail: y.j.yang@uva.nl, E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au, E-mail: t.j.maccarone@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: r.fender@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: fraser.lewis@faulkes-telescope.com. TESTING THE JET QUENCHING PARADIGM WITH AN ULTRADEEP OBSERVATION OF A STEADILY SOFT STATE BLACK HOLE. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/739/1/L19.
Russell, D. M., Yang, Y. J., Miller-Jones, J. C. A., Maccarone, T. J., Fender, R. P., and Lewis, F., E-mail: d.m.russell@uva.nl, E-mail: y.j.yang@uva.nl, E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au, E-mail: t.j.maccarone@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: r.fender@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: fraser.lewis@faulkes-telescope.com. Tue . "TESTING THE JET QUENCHING PARADIGM WITH AN ULTRADEEP OBSERVATION OF A STEADILY SOFT STATE BLACK HOLE". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/739/1/L19.
@article{osti_21565452,
title = {TESTING THE JET QUENCHING PARADIGM WITH AN ULTRADEEP OBSERVATION OF A STEADILY SOFT STATE BLACK HOLE},
author = {Russell, D. M. and Yang, Y. J. and Miller-Jones, J. C. A. and Maccarone, T. J. and Fender, R. P. and Lewis, F., E-mail: d.m.russell@uva.nl, E-mail: y.j.yang@uva.nl, E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au, E-mail: t.j.maccarone@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: r.fender@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: fraser.lewis@faulkes-telescope.com},
abstractNote = {We present ultradeep radio observations with the Expanded Very Large Array of 4U 1957+11, a Galactic black hole (BH) candidate X-ray binary known to exist in a persistent soft X-ray state. We derive a stringent upper limit of 11.4 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}) at 5-7 GHz, which provides the most rigorous upper limit to date on the presence of jets in a soft state BH X-ray binary (BHXB). X-ray, UV, and optical fluxes obtained within a few weeks of the radio data can be explained by thermal emission from the disk. At this X-ray luminosity, a hard state BHXB that follows the established empirical radio-X-ray correlation would be at least 330-810 times brighter at radio frequencies, depending on the distance to 4U 1957+11. This jet quenching of >2.5 orders of magnitude is greater than some models predict and implies that the jets are prevented from being launched altogether in the soft state. 4U 1957+11 is also more than one order of magnitude fainter than the faintest of the 'radio-quiet' population of hard state BHs. In addition, we show that, on average, soft state stellar-mass BHs probably have fainter jets than most active galactic nuclei in a state equivalent to the soft state. These results have implications for the conditions required for powerful, relativistic jets to form and provide a new empirical constraint for time- and accretion mode-dependent jet models, furthering our understanding of jet production and accretion onto BHs.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/739/1/L19},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
issn = {2041-8205},
number = 1,
volume = 739,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {9}
}