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Title: Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

Abstract

In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system mustmore » be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Technical University of Braunschweig, Leichtweiss-Institute, Department of Waste and Resource Management, Beethovenstrasse 51a, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)
  2. Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Waste Management, Coudraystrasse 7, 99423 Weimar (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21550354
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.11.017; PII: S0956-053X(10)00587-8; Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; ENERGY RECOVERY; ENERGY YIELD; EUROPEAN UNION; GREENHOUSE GASES; METALS; PLASTICS; PRODUCTIVITY; RECYCLING; RESOURCE EXPLOITATION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTES; EFFICIENCY; ELEMENTS; INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; MANAGEMENT; MATERIALS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC POLYMERS; PETROCHEMICALS; PETROLEUM PRODUCTS; POLYMERS; SYNTHETIC MATERIALS

Citation Formats

Fricke, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.fricke@tu-bs.de, Bahr, Tobias, E-mail: t.bahr@tu-bs.de, Bidlingmaier, Werner, E-mail: werner.bidlingmaier@uni-weimar.de, and Springer, Christian, E-mail: christian.springer@uni-weimar.de. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2010.11.017.
Fricke, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.fricke@tu-bs.de, Bahr, Tobias, E-mail: t.bahr@tu-bs.de, Bidlingmaier, Werner, E-mail: werner.bidlingmaier@uni-weimar.de, & Springer, Christian, E-mail: christian.springer@uni-weimar.de. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions. United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2010.11.017.
Fricke, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.fricke@tu-bs.de, Bahr, Tobias, E-mail: t.bahr@tu-bs.de, Bidlingmaier, Werner, E-mail: werner.bidlingmaier@uni-weimar.de, and Springer, Christian, E-mail: christian.springer@uni-weimar.de. 2011. "Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions". United States. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2010.11.017.
@article{osti_21550354,
title = {Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions},
author = {Fricke, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.fricke@tu-bs.de and Bahr, Tobias, E-mail: t.bahr@tu-bs.de and Bidlingmaier, Werner, E-mail: werner.bidlingmaier@uni-weimar.de and Springer, Christian, E-mail: christian.springer@uni-weimar.de},
abstractNote = {In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.},
doi = {10.1016/j.wasman.2010.11.017},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 4,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month = 4
}
  • The distribution of coal substance in various size ranges can be classified by a coefficient calculated on the basis of ash content and cakeability. The coefficient may have a positive, zero or negative significance. When preparing coal charges for coking by crushing, it is essential to aim for the negative distribution characteristic by size ranges, i.e. to achieve an increase in cakeability and a reduction in ash.
  • This article describes an attempt to avoid a fault in the evaluation of the degree of uniformity of quality indices between individual size fractions. The most widely used quality parameters of size fractions are their ash and caking capacity. The differential quality curves for all coals (or blends) crushed for processing by the standard methods follow the same pattern; the ash decreases from the coarse (>2 to 3 mm) to the intermediate (approx. 1 to 0.5 mm) size fractions and then tends to increase in the fines (<0.5 mm). The caking indices (plastic layer thickness, swelling index, etc.) are relatedmore » to the ash and vary in the opposite direction. The adoption of improved preparation schemes alters the properties of the size fractions (quite substantially in some cases); the ash of the coarse fractions is lowered and their caking capacity is improved. The distribution of coal substance between size fractions in carbonization charges is an important factor, since it determines their coking quality (particularly when using petrographically heterogeneous coals). It assumes particular importance when developing and introducing different methods of charge preparation and establishing the optimum degree of crushing. Whereas the size analysis of a charge determines the caking surface area and, through the bulk density effect, influences the temperature distribution inside the coke oven, the quality of the individual size fractions determines the local stress levels attained during the carbonization process and hence the shatter index of the coke. The caking behavior of each grain depends on its petrographic constitution and size. The caking capacity of a given blend can often be enhanced by optimizing the coal substance distribution between size fractions at the preparation stage, e.g., by adopting selective crushing with pneumatic separation rather than the traditional methods of preparation (crushing before blending, crushing after blending, etc.).« less
  • A macroporous poly(vinylphosphoramidic acid) resin is synthesized through the reaction of macroporous poly(vinylethylenediamine) resin with formaldehyde and phosphorus acid. The adsorption efficiency of the resin to selected elements is determined. An ICP-OES method has been established for the resin enrichment and separation of trace Dy, Ho, Er and Yb ions in waste water. The ability of the Na-form resin to adsorb Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb ions is far better than the H-form resin. The IR spectra of the resin before and after adsorbing Dy are shown. The mechanism of resin adsorption of Dy is explored. The results of resinmore » enriched waste water analysis from a smelter plant are 31.0 ng/ml for dy, 41.1 ng/ml for Hl, 20.6 ng/ml for Er and 20.2 ng/ml for Yb ions. The recovery of standard additions of Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb to the waste water is in the range of 97.0-98.5%.« less
  • Highlights: > The amount of waste available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW). > Its energy potential is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). > Increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery. > Variations in the composition of the waste fed to WtE plants affect only marginally their performances. > A large WtE plant with a treatment capacity some times higher than a small plant achieves electric efficiency appreciably higher. - Abstract: This article is part of a set of six coordinated papersmore » reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on 'Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)'. An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa).« less