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Title: Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries

Abstract

This article reports that choosing the best EV battery involves more than a quest for greater range per charge, as total energy cycle assessment of batteries demonstrates. Much has been written about the performance characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but information about materials and the production and recycling processes is not as readily available. Such information has not been the primary focus of interest, since designs and processes are still under development, and much of the information is proprietary. An overview of four electric vehicle batteries--advanced lead/acid, sodium/sulfur, nickel/cadmium and nickel/metal hydride--highlights significant differences in energy consumption during production and recycling of materials used in the batteries. Certain realities apply to these batteries, despite their technical distinctions. First, and most obvious, the batteries will make up a significant fraction, 20--40%, of vehicle mass. Impacts are increased because some batteries with lifetimes shorter than the vehicle`s will need replacement at least once. Another insight is that battery recyclability is being considered at the design stage because the electric vehicle is being born green, that is, environmentally benign from the onset. In contrast to the small consumer cells now simply being shredded, EV batteries will be large enough to warrant disassemblymore » and material segregation as the first step in recycling. Electrode and electrolyte materials in advanced batteries are nonstandard in the automotive industry, so process information is not readily available.« less

Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
215467
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Automotive Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: PBD: Feb 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 29 ENERGY PLANNING AND POLICY; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; LEAD-ACID BATTERIES; ENERGY ANALYSIS; SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES; NICKEL-HYDROGEN BATTERIES; NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES; MANUFACTURING; ENERGY DEMAND; RECYCLING; RESOURCE CONSERVATION; ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; LIFE-CYCLE COST; ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Citation Formats

. Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
. Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries. United States.
. 1996. "Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries". United States.
@article{osti_215467,
title = {Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries},
author = {},
abstractNote = {This article reports that choosing the best EV battery involves more than a quest for greater range per charge, as total energy cycle assessment of batteries demonstrates. Much has been written about the performance characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but information about materials and the production and recycling processes is not as readily available. Such information has not been the primary focus of interest, since designs and processes are still under development, and much of the information is proprietary. An overview of four electric vehicle batteries--advanced lead/acid, sodium/sulfur, nickel/cadmium and nickel/metal hydride--highlights significant differences in energy consumption during production and recycling of materials used in the batteries. Certain realities apply to these batteries, despite their technical distinctions. First, and most obvious, the batteries will make up a significant fraction, 20--40%, of vehicle mass. Impacts are increased because some batteries with lifetimes shorter than the vehicle`s will need replacement at least once. Another insight is that battery recyclability is being considered at the design stage because the electric vehicle is being born green, that is, environmentally benign from the onset. In contrast to the small consumer cells now simply being shredded, EV batteries will be large enough to warrant disassembly and material segregation as the first step in recycling. Electrode and electrolyte materials in advanced batteries are nonstandard in the automotive industry, so process information is not readily available.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/215467}, journal = {Automotive Engineering},
number = 2,
volume = 104,
place = {United States},
year = {1996},
month = {2}
}