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Title: Defect production in strained p-type Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} by Er implantation

Abstract

Strained p-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x=5.3%, 10.2%, and 15.4%) was irradiated at room temperature with 160 keV {sup 166}Er{sup 2+} ions to a fluence of 1x10{sup 10} or 3x10{sup 13} Er/cm{sup 2}. The defects induced by ion implantation were investigated experimentally using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectroscopy, and deep level transient spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction indicates that the damage induced by Er implantation produces a slight perpendicular expansion of the SiGe lattice. For all compositions, channeling measurements reveal that Er implantation in p-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} to a fluence of 3x10{sup 13} Er/cm{sup 2} induces an amorphous region below the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} surface. Annealing at 850 deg. C for 30 s, results in a reduction in damage density, a relaxation of the implantation-induced perpendicular expansion of the SiGe lattice in the implanted region, while a more pronounced relaxation of the compressive strain SiGe is observed for higher Ge content (x=0.10 and 0.15). On the other hand, for the annealed SiGe samples that were implanted with Er at the fluence of 10{sup 10} Er/cm{sup 2}, the compressive strain in the SiGe layer is nearly completely retained. Deep level transient spectroscopy studies indicate that two prominent defects with discrete energy levelsmore » above the valence band are introduced during Er implantation. Their activation energy was found to decrease with increasing Ge content. However, the relatively large local strain induced by high fluence Er implantation reduces the activation energy by 40 meV with respect to the low fluence Er implanted p-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}. This shift (40 meV) in the activation energy remains constant regardless of the Ge content, suggesting that the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} layers remained fully strained after Er implantation. The observed defects are further compared to those introduced by alpha particle irradiation and electron beam metal deposition. The results indicate that defects introduced by Er implantation have similar electronic properties as those of defects detected after electron beam deposition and alpha particle irradiation. Therefore, it is concluded that these defects are due to the Er implantation-induced damage and not to the Er species specifically.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21538025
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.3531539; (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ACTIVATION ENERGY; ANNEALING; CRYSTAL DEFECTS; DEEP LEVEL TRANSIENT SPECTROSCOPY; DENSITY; ELECTRON BEAMS; ENERGY LEVELS; GERMANIUM ALLOYS; GERMANIUM SILICIDES; ION IMPLANTATION; IONS; IRRADIATION; KEV RANGE 100-1000; LAYERS; RELAXATION; RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY; SILICON ALLOYS; SURFACES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ALLOYS; BEAMS; CHARGED PARTICLES; COHERENT SCATTERING; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; DIFFRACTION; ENERGY; ENERGY RANGE; GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS; HEAT TREATMENTS; KEV RANGE; LEPTON BEAMS; PARTICLE BEAMS; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; SCATTERING; SILICIDES; SILICON COMPOUNDS; SPECTROSCOPY; TEMPERATURE RANGE

Citation Formats

Mamor, M, Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 50, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman, Pipeleers, B, Vantomme, A, and Auret, F D. Defect production in strained p-type Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} by Er implantation. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3531539.
Mamor, M, Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 50, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman, Pipeleers, B, Vantomme, A, & Auret, F D. Defect production in strained p-type Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} by Er implantation. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3531539
Mamor, M, Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 50, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman, Pipeleers, B, Vantomme, A, and Auret, F D. Sat . "Defect production in strained p-type Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} by Er implantation". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3531539.
@article{osti_21538025,
title = {Defect production in strained p-type Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} by Er implantation},
author = {Mamor, M and Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 50, Muscat 123, Sultanate of Oman and Pipeleers, B and Vantomme, A and Auret, F D},
abstractNote = {Strained p-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x=5.3%, 10.2%, and 15.4%) was irradiated at room temperature with 160 keV {sup 166}Er{sup 2+} ions to a fluence of 1x10{sup 10} or 3x10{sup 13} Er/cm{sup 2}. The defects induced by ion implantation were investigated experimentally using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectroscopy, and deep level transient spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction indicates that the damage induced by Er implantation produces a slight perpendicular expansion of the SiGe lattice. For all compositions, channeling measurements reveal that Er implantation in p-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} to a fluence of 3x10{sup 13} Er/cm{sup 2} induces an amorphous region below the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} surface. Annealing at 850 deg. C for 30 s, results in a reduction in damage density, a relaxation of the implantation-induced perpendicular expansion of the SiGe lattice in the implanted region, while a more pronounced relaxation of the compressive strain SiGe is observed for higher Ge content (x=0.10 and 0.15). On the other hand, for the annealed SiGe samples that were implanted with Er at the fluence of 10{sup 10} Er/cm{sup 2}, the compressive strain in the SiGe layer is nearly completely retained. Deep level transient spectroscopy studies indicate that two prominent defects with discrete energy levels above the valence band are introduced during Er implantation. Their activation energy was found to decrease with increasing Ge content. However, the relatively large local strain induced by high fluence Er implantation reduces the activation energy by 40 meV with respect to the low fluence Er implanted p-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}. This shift (40 meV) in the activation energy remains constant regardless of the Ge content, suggesting that the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} layers remained fully strained after Er implantation. The observed defects are further compared to those introduced by alpha particle irradiation and electron beam metal deposition. The results indicate that defects introduced by Er implantation have similar electronic properties as those of defects detected after electron beam deposition and alpha particle irradiation. Therefore, it is concluded that these defects are due to the Er implantation-induced damage and not to the Er species specifically.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3531539},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21538025}, journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 1,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {1}
}