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Title: Semiconductor Ion Implanters

Abstract

In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle acceleratormore » technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Isys, 2727 Walsh Ave., Suite 103, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States)
  2. Group 3, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21513401
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1336; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: CAARI 2010: 21. International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, Fort Worth, TX (United States), 8-13 Aug 2010; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.3586054; (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; CHARGED PARTICLES; FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS; IMPLANTS; INDUSTRY; INTERFACES; ION IMPLANTATION; MAGNETS; MICROPROCESSORS; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS; EQUIPMENT; MATERIALS; MICROELECTRONIC CIRCUITS; SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; TRANSISTORS

Citation Formats

MacKinnon, Barry A., and Ruffell, John P. Semiconductor Ion Implanters. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3586054.
MacKinnon, Barry A., & Ruffell, John P. Semiconductor Ion Implanters. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3586054.
MacKinnon, Barry A., and Ruffell, John P. Wed . "Semiconductor Ion Implanters". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3586054.
@article{osti_21513401,
title = {Semiconductor Ion Implanters},
author = {MacKinnon, Barry A. and Ruffell, John P.},
abstractNote = {In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3586054},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1336,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2011},
month = {Wed Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2011}
}
  • A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation intomore » the silicon wafer is presented as well.« less
  • Considerably enhanced yields of P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) were obtained using a modified Bernas-Calutron ion source. The source design, experimental layout, and results of extensive optimization studies are described. The improved production of multiply charged ions is of particular interest for applications in semiconductor ion implantation facilities.
  • By the end of the 1960's, the development of ion beam systems for isotope separation and materials research had reached the stage at which knowledge bases in the areas of ion beam formation and transport and the physics of atomic collisions in solids made it practical to consider the use of ion implantation as a means of modifying the near surface properties of solid materials. The beam currents and energies available made the technique particularly compatible with the doping requirements of the silicon devices being produced at that time. However, incorporation of the technique into a high volume manufacturing environmentmore » required the immediate development of new target handling facilities and improvements in machine reliability. While the manner in which ion implanters have evolved over the past forty years has continued to be dictated by the changing demands of the silicon processing industry, the dramatic reduction in transistor size and the increase in integrated circuit complexity have had significant implications for the qualities of the ion beams themselves, particularly in high current, ultra-low energy applications. Since the first commercial implanters were introduced, highly developed medium current, high current and high energy machines have evolved. In the medium current and high energy sectors, well understood ion optical principles have enabled ingenious and highly effective beam formation and transport systems to be designed. As these machines evolved, extensive studies of the implanted material using ion beam based techniques such as Rutherford backscattering and channelling provided a growing understanding of the fundamental radiation damage and annealing processes that are inevitably associated with the implantation process. For high current machines, particularly those operating in the so-called eV implantation range, beam formation and transport processes become considerably more complex and established ion optical design principles must be combined with detailed considerations of the roles of emittance, space charge and beam plasma characteristics if beams compatible with production worthy ultra-shallow junction formation are to be obtained. For these shallow, high dose implants, the proximity of the surface has a significant effect on the radiation damage build-up and annealing processes. To develop an understanding of the physics of some aspects of these processes, high depth resolution analytical techniques such as medium energy ion scattering have been applied. In the present review, the process based evolution of ion implantation equipment is discussed alongside a consideration of the contribution made by the growth in understanding of the physics of both the beams themselves and the ion collection and radiation damage processes occurring in the implanted silicon.« less
  • An investigation into measured differences in surface contaminant levels when evaluating several ion implant tools and/or tool types. For a given species and energy, beam current appears to have a strong effect on final contaminant levels. Ideally one evaluates process integrity at machine set-up conditions that approximate or exceed the worst case conditions required for regular, volume wafer production. Some contaminants may exhibit a 'threshold' effect where they are easily observed with sufficient beam current, but not present at all for lower beam currents. Knowing the characteristics of the measurement process is essential in obtaining reliable results with a clearmore » interpretation and better facilitates cross-site or cross-platform comparisons.« less