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Title: Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

Abstract

Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence andmore » showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Center for Uterine Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Center for Diagnostic Oncology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21491616
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 79; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.11.031; PII: S0360-3016(09)03572-X; Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANTIGENS; COMBINED THERAPY; FLUORINE 18; FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE; LYMPH NODES; MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; UROGENITAL SYSTEM DISEASES; ANTIMETABOLITES; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-PLUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; DISEASES; DRUGS; EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; FLUORINE ISOTOPES; HOURS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; ISOMERIC TRANSITION ISOTOPES; ISOTOPES; LIGHT NUCLEI; LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; MATHEMATICS; MEDICINE; NANOSECONDS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; NUCLEI; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; RADIOISOTOPES; STATISTICS; THERAPY; TOMOGRAPHY

Citation Formats

Kang, Sokbom, E-mail: sokbom@ncc.re.k, Park, Jung-Yeol, Lim, Myung-Chul, Song, Yong-Joong, Park, Se-Hyun, Kim, Seok-Ki, Chung, Dae-Chul, Seo, Sang-Soo, Kim, Joo-Young, and Park, Sang-Yoon. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.11.031.
Kang, Sokbom, E-mail: sokbom@ncc.re.k, Park, Jung-Yeol, Lim, Myung-Chul, Song, Yong-Joong, Park, Se-Hyun, Kim, Seok-Ki, Chung, Dae-Chul, Seo, Sang-Soo, Kim, Joo-Young, & Park, Sang-Yoon. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.11.031.
Kang, Sokbom, E-mail: sokbom@ncc.re.k, Park, Jung-Yeol, Lim, Myung-Chul, Song, Yong-Joong, Park, Se-Hyun, Kim, Seok-Ki, Chung, Dae-Chul, Seo, Sang-Soo, Kim, Joo-Young, and Park, Sang-Yoon. 2011. "Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.11.031.
@article{osti_21491616,
title = {Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study},
author = {Kang, Sokbom, E-mail: sokbom@ncc.re.k and Park, Jung-Yeol and Lim, Myung-Chul and Song, Yong-Joong and Park, Se-Hyun and Kim, Seok-Ki and Chung, Dae-Chul and Seo, Sang-Soo and Kim, Joo-Young and Park, Sang-Yoon},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.11.031},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 79,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month = 3
}
  • Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response of uterine cervix and pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) using consecutive {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) immediately after RT and to correlate survival outcome with the metabolic response. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with cervical cancer who had positive pelvic LNs by preradiation therapy (pre-RT) PET/CT. All patients underwent PET/CT scans immediately after RT (inter-RT PET/CT) after median 63 Gy to the gross LNs. The metabolic response of the LNs was assessed quantitatively and semiquantitatively by measurement of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Results: Classifying the metabolic response ofmore » all nodal lesions, 37 patients (77%) had LNs with complete metabolic response on the inter-RT PET/CT (LNCMRi), and 11 patients had a non-LNCMRi, including 4 patients with progressive metabolic disease. The overall 3-year survival rates were 83% for the patients with LNCMRi and 73% for the non-LNCMRi group (P=.038). The disease-free survival for patients with LNCMRi were significantly better than that for the non-LNCMRi group (71% vs 18%, respectively, P<.001). The 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 79% for the patients with LNCMRi and 27% for the non-LNCMRi group (P<.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (76% vs 86%, respectively, P=.954) and disease-free survival rates (58% vs 61%, respectively, P=.818) between the CMR of primary cervical tumor and the non-CMR groups. Conclusions: The results showed a significant correlation between survival outcome and the interim metabolic response of pelvic LNs. CMR of nodal lesion on inter-RT PET/CT had excellent overall survival, disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates. This suggested that PET/CT immediately after RT can be a useful tool for the evaluation of the interim response of the LNs and identify a subset of patients with a high risk of recurrence and poor survival in patients with cervical cancer with initial positive LNs.« less
  • Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 withmore » PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence in node-positive cervical cancer. The dose of 55 Gy in 25 fractions was effective in eradicating disease in involved nodes, with acceptable late adverse events. Distant metastasis is the predominant mode of failure, and the OUTBACK trial may challenge the presented paradigms.« less
  • Background: We previously reported that pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET) identifies lesions at high risk for progression after concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we validate those findings and generate tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: We identified patients treated with definitive, concurrent CRT for locally advanced NSCLC who underwent staging {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose/PET/computed tomography. Visible hypermetabolic lesions (primary tumors and lymph nodes) were delineated on each patient's pretreatment PET scan. Posttreatment imaging was reviewed to identify locations of disease progression. Competing risks analyses were performed to examine metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and radiation therapymore » dose as predictors of local disease progression. TCP modeling was performed to describe the likelihood of local disease control as a function of lesion size. Results: Eighty-nine patients with 259 hypermetabolic lesions (83 primary tumors and 176 regional lymph nodes) met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-eight patients were included in our previous report, and the remaining 61 constituted our validation cohort. The median follow-up time was 22.7 months for living patients. In 20 patients, the first site of progression was a primary tumor or lymph node treated with radiation therapy. The median time to progression for those patients was 11.5 months. Data from our validation cohort confirmed that lesion MTV predicts local progression, with a 30-month cumulative incidence rate of 23% for lesions above 25 cc compared with 4% for lesions below 25 cc (P=.008). We found no evidence that radiation therapy dose was associated with local progression risk. TCP modeling yielded predicted 30-month local control rates of 98% for a 1-cc lesion, 94% for a 10-cc lesion, and 74% for a 50-cc lesion. Conclusion: Pretreatment FDG-PET identifies lesions at risk for progression after CRT for locally advanced NSCLC. Strategies to improve local control should be tested on high-risk lesions, and treatment deintensification for low-risk lesions should be explored.« less
  • Purpose: The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0235 study demonstrated that standardized uptake values (SUV) on post-treatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlated with survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This secondary analysis determined whether SUV of regional lymph nodes (RLNs) on post-treatment FDG-PET correlated with patient outcomes. Methods and Materials: Included for analysis were patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy, using radiation doses ≥60 Gy, with identifiable FDG-avid RLNs (distinct from primary tumor) on pretreatment FDG-PET, and post-treatment FDG-PET data. ACRIN core laboratory SUV measurements were used. Event time was calculatedmore » from the date of post-treatment FDG-PET. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank test), and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: Of 234 trial-eligible patients, 139 (59%) had uptake in both primary tumor and RLNs on pretreatment FDG-PET and had SUV data from post-treatment FDG-PET. Maximum SUV was greater for primary tumor than for RLNs before treatment (P<.001) but not different post-treatment (P=.320). Post-treatment SUV of RLNs was not associated with overall survival. However, elevated post-treatment SUV of RLNs, both the absolute value and the percentage of residual activity compared to the pretreatment SUV were associated with inferior local-regional control (P<.001). Conclusions: High residual metabolic activity in RLNs on post-treatment FDG-PET is associated with worse local-regional control. Based on these data, future trials evaluating a radiation therapy boost should consider inclusion of both primary tumor and FDG-avid RLNs in the boost volume to maximize local-regional control.« less
  • Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and clinical outcomes for cervical cancer patients treated definitively with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with non-IMRT treatment. Methods and Materials: This prospective cohort study included 452 patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer treated with curative intent (135 IMRT and 317 non-IMRT). Treatment involved external irradiation and brachytherapy, and 85% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. All IMRT patients underwent an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) simulation. A 3-month post-therapy PET was obtained to evaluate treatment response. Toxicity was scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Results: Themore » IMRT and non-IMRT groups had similar stage distribution and histology. For all patients, the post-therapy FDG-PET response correlated with overall recurrence risk (p < 0.0001) and cause-specific survival (p < 0.0001). Post-treatment FDG-PET findings were not significantly different between the IMRT and non-IMRT patients (p = 0.9774). The mean follow-up for all patients alive at the time of last follow-up was 52 months (72 months non-IMRT, 22 months IMRT). At last follow-up, 178 patients (39 IMRT, 139 non-IMRT) had developed a recurrence. The difference in recurrence-free survival between the two groups did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.0738), although the IMRT group showed better overall and cause-specific survivals (p < 0.0001). Of the patients, 62 patients (8 IMRT and 54 non-IMRT) developed Grade 3 or greater bowel or bladder complications, and by cumulative hazard function analysis the risk was significantly less for patients treated with IMRT (p = 0.0351). Conclusion: Cervical cancer patients treated with FDG-PET/CT-guided IMRT have improved survival and less treatment-related toxicity compared with patients treated with non-IMRT radiotherapy.« less