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Title: On the possibility of development of a photochemical unit based on an NH{sub 3} laser with an intracavity reactor

Abstract

The possibility of developing a photochemical setup on the basis of an optically pumped ammonia laser with an intracavity photoreactor is proved. The obtained values of the cavity 'implication' factor {gamma} are comparable with those of intracavity systems based on a CO{sub 2} laser. The conditions for achieving the maximum energy in the focusing cavity are determined and the ways to control the shape of its caustic are indicated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)
  2. INVAP S.E. Company, Laser Optics Technology Lab, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)
  3. State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21459989
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Quantum Electronics (Woodbury, N.Y.); Journal Volume: 36; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1070/QE2006v036n03ABEH013137
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; AMMONIA; CARBON DIOXIDE LASERS; CONTROL; FOCUSING; PHOTOCHEMISTRY; CHEMISTRY; GAS LASERS; HYDRIDES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; LASERS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN HYDRIDES

Citation Formats

Apatin, V M, Makarov, Grigorii N, Ryabov, Evgenii A, Belokurov, A N, Mendoza, P, Rios, I, Petin, A N, and Pigul'skii, S V. On the possibility of development of a photochemical unit based on an NH{sub 3} laser with an intracavity reactor. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1070/QE2006V036N03ABEH013137.
Apatin, V M, Makarov, Grigorii N, Ryabov, Evgenii A, Belokurov, A N, Mendoza, P, Rios, I, Petin, A N, & Pigul'skii, S V. On the possibility of development of a photochemical unit based on an NH{sub 3} laser with an intracavity reactor. United States. doi:10.1070/QE2006V036N03ABEH013137.
Apatin, V M, Makarov, Grigorii N, Ryabov, Evgenii A, Belokurov, A N, Mendoza, P, Rios, I, Petin, A N, and Pigul'skii, S V. Fri . "On the possibility of development of a photochemical unit based on an NH{sub 3} laser with an intracavity reactor". United States. doi:10.1070/QE2006V036N03ABEH013137.
@article{osti_21459989,
title = {On the possibility of development of a photochemical unit based on an NH{sub 3} laser with an intracavity reactor},
author = {Apatin, V M and Makarov, Grigorii N and Ryabov, Evgenii A and Belokurov, A N and Mendoza, P and Rios, I and Petin, A N and Pigul'skii, S V},
abstractNote = {The possibility of developing a photochemical setup on the basis of an optically pumped ammonia laser with an intracavity photoreactor is proved. The obtained values of the cavity 'implication' factor {gamma} are comparable with those of intracavity systems based on a CO{sub 2} laser. The conditions for achieving the maximum energy in the focusing cavity are determined and the ways to control the shape of its caustic are indicated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)},
doi = {10.1070/QE2006V036N03ABEH013137},
journal = {Quantum Electronics (Woodbury, N.Y.)},
number = 3,
volume = 36,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 31 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Fri Mar 31 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • This paper describes the syntheses of three transition metal diphosphonate compounds: Na{sub 4}Zn{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (1), Ni{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O (2) and NaNi{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (3). Compound 1 contains chains of [Zn{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}]{sub n}{sup 4n-} made up of corner-sharing ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and CPO{sub 3} tetrahedra, which are further connected by tetramers of edge-sharing NaO{sub 6} octahedra, forming a three-dimensional open-framework structure. Compound 2 shows a square-grid layer structure where the NiO{sub 6} octahedra are corner shared with CPO{sub 3} tetrahedra. The adjacent layers aremore » linked by strong inter-layer hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional open-network structure with channels where the lattice water molecules reside. The structure of compound 3 is analogous to that of NaCo{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O in which layers of Ni{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} are connected by NaO{sub 6} linkages into an open-framework structure. The magnetic studies show that weak antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated between the nickel ions in compounds 2 and 3. Crystal data for 1: triclinic, space group P-1, a=5.551(2)A, b=6.166(2)A, c=12.424(4)A, {alpha}=92.422(6){sup o}, {beta}=92.687(7){sup o}, {gamma}=93.926(6){sup o}, V=423.3(2)A{sup 3}, Z=2. For 2: triclinic, space group P-1, a=9.043(1)A, b=9.180(1)A, c=9.271(1)A, {alpha}=89.693(3){sup o}, {beta}=70.202(3){sup o}, {gamma}=89.530(3){sup o}, V=724.1(2)A{sup 3}, Z=2.« less
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  • This paper reports on volumetric ignition of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}/air, and Ch{sub 4}/O{sub 2} mixtures (in an open flow system, initially at 1 atm and room temperature) which is achieved via photolysis of a small amount of NH{sub 3} present in the flow mixtures. The photolysis is accomplished by an ArF excimer laser operated at 193 nm. The ignition appears to be homogenous, since the ignition-delay times measured at several locations are approximately identical. The minimum ignition-energy density is measured to be 137 {plus minus} 8, 190 {plus minus} 20, and 380 {plus minus} 30 mJ/cm{sup 3}more » for stoichiometric mixtures of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}/air/Nh{sub 3}, and Ch{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, respectively, and appears to be insensitive to fuel-equivalence-ratio values between 0.35 and 3.0. The ignition-delay time depends strongly on both the initial NH{sub 3} concentration and the laser-energy-deposition density. However, the ignition-delay time is not sensitive to the fuel equivalence ratio. The measured minimum ignition-energy density appears to be substantially lower than that predicted by a kinetic modeling calculating. This result implies that the hot H atoms produced by the photolysis of NH{sub 3} may play an important role in facilitating the ignition.« less
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  • Using tris(2-ethylamino)amine (tren) as a template, three new fluorides are obtained by solvothermal synthesis: [(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 3}NH].[Zr{sub 3}F{sub 16}(H{sub 2}O)] (I), [(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 3}N]{sub 2}.[ZrF{sub 6}].[Zr{sub 2}F{sub 12}] (II) and [(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 3}N].[TaF{sub 7}].F (III). The structure determinations are performed by single crystal technique. The structure of I consists of infinite spiral-like [Zr{sub 3}F{sub 16}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 4-} chains connected by tetraprotonated [trenH{sub 4}]{sup 4+} cations which possess a plane configuration. In II, isolated [ZrF{sub 6}] octahedra or [Zr{sub 2}F{sub 12}] dimers are linked to organic cations by a tridimensional hydrogen bond network. In III,more » [TaF{sub 7}]{sup 2-} monocapped trigonal prisms and 'isolated' fluoride ions are connected by hydrogen bonds to template moieties. In II and III, every organic moiety is triprotonated [trenH{sub 3}]{sup 3+} with a 'spider' configuration. In the tantalum phase, the hydrogen bond network leads to the formation of a layered structure.« less