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Title: Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

Abstract

It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Institute of Technical Physics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), D-70569 Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40 (Germany)
  2. Institute of Space Systems, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31 (Germany)
  3. Micro-Nano Global Center of Excellence, Nagoya University (Niue), Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8603 (Japan)
  4. Department of Aerospace Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8603 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21439584
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1278; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: International symposium on high power laser ablation 2010, Santa Fe, NM (United States), 18-22 Apr 2010; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.3507172; (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; ABLATION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; LASER-PRODUCED PLASMA; LASERS; PROPULSION; PULSED IRRADIATION; PULSES; REMOVAL; SENSORS; STANDARDIZATION; STANDARDS; THERMAL EXPANSION; EVALUATION; EXPANSION; IRRADIATION; PLASMA

Citation Formats

Scharring, Stefan, Eckel, Hans-Albert, Roeser, Hans-Peter, Sinko, John E., and Sasoh, Akihiro. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3507172.
Scharring, Stefan, Eckel, Hans-Albert, Roeser, Hans-Peter, Sinko, John E., & Sasoh, Akihiro. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3507172.
Scharring, Stefan, Eckel, Hans-Albert, Roeser, Hans-Peter, Sinko, John E., and Sasoh, Akihiro. 2010. "Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3507172.
@article{osti_21439584,
title = {Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues},
author = {Scharring, Stefan and Eckel, Hans-Albert and Roeser, Hans-Peter and Sinko, John E. and Sasoh, Akihiro},
abstractNote = {It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3507172},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1278,
place = {United States},
year = 2010,
month =
}
  • Various measurement techniques have been used throughout the over 40-year history of laser propulsion. Often, these approaches suffered from inconsistencies in definitions of the key parameters that define the physics of laser ablation impulse generation. Such parameters include, but are not limited to the pulse energy, spot area, imparted impulse, and ablated mass. The limits and characteristics of common measurement techniques in each of these areas will be explored as they relate to laser propulsion. The idea of establishing some standardization system for laser propulsion data is introduced in this paper, so that reported results may be considered and studiedmore » by the general community with more certain understanding of particular merits and limitations. In particular, it is the intention to propose a minimum set of requirements a literature study should meet. Some international standards for measurements are already published, but modifications or revisions of such standards may be necessary for application to laser ablation propulsion. Issues relating to development of standards will be discussed, as well as some examples of specific experimental circumstances in which standardization would have prevented misinterpretation or misuse of past data.« less
  • The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and refined laser methods and techniques developed by national metrology institutes and by leading manufacturers in the past two decades have been swiftly specified as standard methods for inclusion into in the series ISO 16063 of international documentary standards. A survey of ISO Standards for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers demonstrates the extended ranges and improved accuracy (measurement uncertainty) of laser methods and techniques for vibration and shock measurements and calibrations.more » The first standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers by laser interferometry or by a reference accelerometer calibrated by laser interferometry (ISO 16063-41) is on the stage of a Draft International Standard (DIS) and may be issued by the end of 2010. The standard methods with refined techniques proved to achieve wider measurement ranges and smaller measurement uncertainties than that specified in the ISO Standards. The applicability of different standardized interferometer methods to vibrations at high frequencies was recently demonstrated up to 347 kHz (acceleration amplitudes up to 350 km/s{sup 2}). The relative deviations between the amplitude measurement results of the different interferometer methods that were applied simultaneously, differed by less than 1% in all cases.« less
  • One of the advantages of laser propulsion is the possibility of controlling exhaust velocity namely specific impulse and optimization of energy and propellant usage. Characteristics of laser plasma interaction with the incident laser intensities of 107{approx}1010W/cm2 have been investigated using multiple plasma diagnostics such as ion collector. Electron temperatures will be discussed.
  • This basic research study examines the physics of airbreathing laser propulsion at the extreme flux range of 1-2x10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}--within the air breakdown threshold for l {mu}m radiation--using the terawatt PHAROS III neodymium-glass pulsed laser. Six different experimental setups were tested using a 34 mm line focus with 66 {mu}m focal waist, positioned near the flat impulse surface. The first campaign investigated impulse generation with the beam oriented almost normal to the target surface, with energies ranging from 23 to 376 J, and pulses of 5 to 30 ns FWHM. Air breakdown/ plasma dynamics were diagnosed with GOI camerasmore » and color photography. Laser generated impulse was quantified with both vertical pendulums and piezoelectric pressure transducers using the standard performance metric, C{sub M}--the momentum coupling coefficient. Part 1 of this 2-part paper covers Campaign no. 1 results including laser plasma diagnostics, pressure gage and vertical pendulum data.« less