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Title: GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

Abstract

We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities L[O{sub III}]>10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram and their central black holes have median masses around 10{sup 6.5} M{sub sun}. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of bluemore » cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the 'sweet spot' on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]; ;  [5];  [6];  [7]; ; ;  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11]; ;  [12];  [13]
  1. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)
  2. Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
  3. Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
  4. Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
  5. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
  6. Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)
  7. Department of Physics and Astronomy, 206 Gallalee Hall, 514 University Blvd., University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States)
  8. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth, PO1 2EG (United Kingdom)
  9. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  10. LinkLab, 4506 Graystone Avenue, Bronx, NY 10471 (United States)
  11. Fingerprint Digital Media, 9 Victoria Close, Newtownards, Co. Down, Northern Ireland, BT23 7GY (United Kingdom)
  12. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  13. Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21394377
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 711; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/284
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BLACK HOLES; COLOR; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; LUMINOSITY; MASS; MILKY WAY; MORPHOLOGY; UNIVERSE; EVOLUTION; GALAXIES; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Citation Formats

Schawinski, Kevin, Urry, C. Megan, Virani, Shanil, Coppi, Paolo, Cardamone, Carolin N., Bamford, Steven P., Treister, Ezequiel, Lintott, Chris J., Kaviraj, Sugata, Sarzi, Marc, Keel, William C., Masters, Karen L., Nichol, Robert C., Thomas, Daniel, Ross, Nicholas P., Andreescu, Dan, Murray, Phil, Raddick, M. Jordan, Szalay, Alex S., and Slosar, Anze, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@yale.ed. GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/284.
Schawinski, Kevin, Urry, C. Megan, Virani, Shanil, Coppi, Paolo, Cardamone, Carolin N., Bamford, Steven P., Treister, Ezequiel, Lintott, Chris J., Kaviraj, Sugata, Sarzi, Marc, Keel, William C., Masters, Karen L., Nichol, Robert C., Thomas, Daniel, Ross, Nicholas P., Andreescu, Dan, Murray, Phil, Raddick, M. Jordan, Szalay, Alex S., & Slosar, Anze, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@yale.ed. GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/284.
Schawinski, Kevin, Urry, C. Megan, Virani, Shanil, Coppi, Paolo, Cardamone, Carolin N., Bamford, Steven P., Treister, Ezequiel, Lintott, Chris J., Kaviraj, Sugata, Sarzi, Marc, Keel, William C., Masters, Karen L., Nichol, Robert C., Thomas, Daniel, Ross, Nicholas P., Andreescu, Dan, Murray, Phil, Raddick, M. Jordan, Szalay, Alex S., and Slosar, Anze, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@yale.ed. Mon . "GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/284.
@article{osti_21394377,
title = {GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES},
author = {Schawinski, Kevin and Urry, C. Megan and Virani, Shanil and Coppi, Paolo and Cardamone, Carolin N. and Bamford, Steven P. and Treister, Ezequiel and Lintott, Chris J. and Kaviraj, Sugata and Sarzi, Marc and Keel, William C. and Masters, Karen L. and Nichol, Robert C. and Thomas, Daniel and Ross, Nicholas P. and Andreescu, Dan and Murray, Phil and Raddick, M. Jordan and Szalay, Alex S. and Slosar, Anze, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@yale.ed},
abstractNote = {We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities L[O{sub III}]>10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram and their central black holes have median masses around 10{sup 6.5} M{sub sun}. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of blue cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the 'sweet spot' on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/284},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 711,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2010},
month = {Mon Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2010}
}
  • We investigate the cosmic evolution of the black hole (BH) mass-bulge luminosity relation using a sample of 52 active galaxies at z ∼ 0.36 and z ∼ 0.57 in the BH mass range of 10{sup 7.4}-10{sup 9.1} M {sub ☉}. By consistently applying multicomponent spectral and structural decomposition to high-quality Keck spectra and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images, BH masses (M {sub BH}) are estimated using the Hβ broad emission line combined with the 5100 Å nuclear luminosity, and bulge luminosities (L {sub bul}) are derived from surface photometry. Comparing the resulting M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation tomore » local active galaxies and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution of the form M {sub BH}/L {sub bul}∝(1 + z){sup γ} with γ = 1.8 ± 0.7, consistent with BH growth preceding that of the host galaxies. Including an additional sample of 27 active galaxies with 0.5 < z < 1.9 taken from the literature and measured in a consistent way, we obtain γ = 0.9 ± 0.7 for the M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation and γ = 0.4 ± 0.5 for the M {sub BH}-total host galaxy luminosity (L {sub host}) relation. The results strengthen the findings from our previous studies and provide additional evidence for host galaxy bulge growth being dominated by disk-to-bulge transformation via minor mergers and/or disk instabilities.« less
  • Stellar masses of bulges in hosts of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and black hole masses in the AGNs are derived at z = 0.5-1.15 to study evolution of the black hole-to-bulge mass relation. In order to derive bulge stellar masses, we use a sample of type-2 AGNs to avoid the bright nuclear light. 34 type-2 AGNs are selected from the spectroscopically identified X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field South. We use optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope, and near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Very Large Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The bulge components are derived bymore » fitting the two-dimensional surface brightness model consisting of a bulge and a disk component to the optical images. We derive stellar masses (M {sub bulge}) and star formation rates (SFRs) of the bulge components by spectral energy distribution fitting. The derived M {sub bulge} ranges over 10{sup 9}-10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, and the estimated SFR is 0.01-100 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Masses of supermassive black holes (SMBHs; M {sub .}) and black hole accretion rates (BHARs) are estimated with the absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities in the 2-10 keV band under an assumption of the constant Eddington ratio of 0.1 and the constant energy conversion factor of 0.1. Resulting black hole masses and BHARs range over 10{sup 5.5}-10{sup 8} M {sub sun} and 0.001-1 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}, respectively. For luminous AGNs, the estimated M {sub .}/M {sub bulge} ratio is {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} in the median, which is lower than that for local galaxies and for type-2 AGNs at z {approx} 0.2. However, these differences are within uncertainty and are not significant. This can imply that SMBHs and their host galaxies are evolving almost holding the constant M {sub .}/M {sub bulge} ratio from z {approx} 1.0 to 0 in a cosmological timescale. Meanwhile, the estimated BHAR/SFR ratio is about 60 times larger than the M {sub .}/M {sub bulge} ratio in the median value. This indicates that growths of SMBHs and their host bulges do not proceed simultaneously in a shorter timescale such as an AGN phase.« less
  • Elliptical, lenticular, and early-type spiral galaxies show a remarkably tight power-law correlation between the mass M {sub .} of their central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the number N {sub GC} of globular clusters (GCs): M{sub .} = m {sub ./*} x N {sup 1.08{+-}0.04} {sub GC} with m{sub ./*} = 1.7 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}. Thus, to a good approximation the SMBH mass is the same as the total mass of the GCs. Based on a limited sample of 13 galaxies, this relation appears to be a better predictor of SMBH mass (rms scatter 0.2 dex) than themore » M{sub .}-{sigma} relation between SMBH mass and velocity dispersion {sigma}. The small scatter reflects the fact that galaxies with high GC specific frequency S{sub N} tend to harbor SMBHs that are more massive than expected from the M{sub .}-{sigma} relation.« less
  • We conducted millimeter continuum observations for samples of nearby early-type galaxies (21 sources) and nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs; 16 sources) at 100 GHz ({lambda}3 mm) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA). In addition, we performed quasi-simultaneous observations at 150 GHz ({lambda}2 mm) and 100 GHz for five LLAGNs. Compact nuclear emissions showing flat or inverted spectra at centimeter-to-millimeter wavelengths were found in many LLAGNs and several early-type galaxies. Moreover, significant flux variability was detected in three LLAGNs. These radio properties are similar to Sgr A*. The observed radio luminosities are consistent with the fundamental plane of black holemore » activity that was suggested on the basis of samples with black hole masses ranging from 10 to 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. This implies nuclear jets powered by radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes.« less
  • We have conducted an archival Spitzer study of 38 early-type galaxies in order to determine the origin of the dust in approximately half of this population. Our sample galaxies generally have good wavelength coverage from 3.6 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m, as well as visible-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. We use the Spitzer data to estimate dust masses, or establish upper limits, and find that all of the early-type galaxies with dust lanes in the HST data are detected in all of the Spitzer bands and have dust masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6.5} M{sub Sun }, while galaxies without dustmore » lanes are not detected at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m and typically have <10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} of dust. The apparently dust-free galaxies do have 24 {mu}m emission that scales with the shorter-wavelength flux, yet substantially exceeds the expectations of photospheric emission by approximately a factor of three. We conclude this emission is dominated by hot, circumstellar dust around evolved stars that does not survive to form a substantial interstellar component. The order-of-magnitude variations in dust masses between galaxies with similar stellar populations rule out a substantial contribution from continual, internal production in spite of the clear evidence for circumstellar dust. We demonstrate that the interstellar dust is not due to purely external accretion, unless the product of the merger rate of dusty satellites and the dust lifetime is at least an order of magnitude higher than expected. We propose that dust in early-type galaxies is seeded by external accretion, yet the accreted dust is maintained by continued growth in externally accreted cold gas beyond the nominal lifetime of individual grains. The several Gyr depletion time of the cold gas is long enough to reconcile the fraction of dusty early-type galaxies with the merger rate of gas-rich satellites. As the majority of dusty early-type galaxies are also low-luminosity active galactic nuclei and likely fueled by this cold gas, their lifetime should similarly be several Gyr.« less