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Title: Complications Following Linear Accelerator Based Stereotactic Radiation for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

Abstract

Purpose: Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles. Method and Materials: A database was searched for all patients with AVMs. We included 50 consecutive patients with a minimum of 24 months follow-up (24-51 months). Results: AVM occlusion was verified in 78% of patients (39/50). AVM occlusion without new deficits (excellent outcome) was obtained in 44%. Good or fair outcome (AVM occlusion with mild or moderate new deficits) was seen in 30%. Severe complications after AVM occlusion occurred in 4% with a median interval of 15 months after treatment (range, 1-26 months). Conclusions: We applied an AVM grading score developed at the Mayo Clinic to predict probable outcome after radiosurgery in a large patient population treated with Gamma knife. A cutoff above and below a score of 1.5more » could not discriminate between the likelihood of having an excellent outcome (approximately 45%). The chance of having an excellent or good outcome was slightly higher in patients with an AVM score below 1.5 (64% vs. 57%).« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21372306
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 77; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.05.048; PII: S0360-3016(09)00831-1; Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES; CEREBRUM; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MALFORMATIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SURGERY; ACCELERATORS; BODY; BRAIN; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; DISEASES; DOSES; MEDICINE; NERVOUS SYSTEM; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ORGANS; PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES; RADIOLOGY; THERAPY

Citation Formats

Skjoth-Rasmussen, Jane, E-mail: jane@skjoeth-rasmussen.d, Roed, Henrik, Ohlhues, Lars, Jespersen, Bo, and Juhler, Marianne. Complications Following Linear Accelerator Based Stereotactic Radiation for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.05.048.
Skjoth-Rasmussen, Jane, E-mail: jane@skjoeth-rasmussen.d, Roed, Henrik, Ohlhues, Lars, Jespersen, Bo, & Juhler, Marianne. Complications Following Linear Accelerator Based Stereotactic Radiation for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.05.048.
Skjoth-Rasmussen, Jane, E-mail: jane@skjoeth-rasmussen.d, Roed, Henrik, Ohlhues, Lars, Jespersen, Bo, and Juhler, Marianne. Tue . "Complications Following Linear Accelerator Based Stereotactic Radiation for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.05.048.
@article{osti_21372306,
title = {Complications Following Linear Accelerator Based Stereotactic Radiation for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations},
author = {Skjoth-Rasmussen, Jane, E-mail: jane@skjoeth-rasmussen.d and Roed, Henrik and Ohlhues, Lars and Jespersen, Bo and Juhler, Marianne},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles. Method and Materials: A database was searched for all patients with AVMs. We included 50 consecutive patients with a minimum of 24 months follow-up (24-51 months). Results: AVM occlusion was verified in 78% of patients (39/50). AVM occlusion without new deficits (excellent outcome) was obtained in 44%. Good or fair outcome (AVM occlusion with mild or moderate new deficits) was seen in 30%. Severe complications after AVM occlusion occurred in 4% with a median interval of 15 months after treatment (range, 1-26 months). Conclusions: We applied an AVM grading score developed at the Mayo Clinic to predict probable outcome after radiosurgery in a large patient population treated with Gamma knife. A cutoff above and below a score of 1.5 could not discriminate between the likelihood of having an excellent outcome (approximately 45%). The chance of having an excellent or good outcome was slightly higher in patients with an AVM score below 1.5 (64% vs. 57%).},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.05.048},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 77,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2010},
month = {Tue Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2010}
}
  • Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log-rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associatedmore » with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V{sub x} for doses {>=}8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, AVM volumes >5 cm{sup 3} and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The V{sub 12} also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V{sub 12} was <28 cm{sup 3} and 53.2% if >28 cm{sup 3} (log-rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate patient outcome and obliteration rates after radiosurgery (RS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located deep, in the motor cortex or brainstem and those involving corpus callosum. Methods and Materials: This analysis is based on 65 patients. AVM classification according to Spetzler-Martin was 13 patients Grade 2, 39 Grade 3, 12 Grade 4, and 1 Grade 5. Median RS-based AVM score was 1.69. Median single dose was 18 Gy. Mean treatment volume was 5.2 cc (range, 0.2-26.5 cc). Forty patients (62%) experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Results: Actuarial complete obliteration rate (CO) wasmore » 50% and 65% after 3 and 5 years, respectively. CO was significantly higher in AVM <3 cm (p < 0.02) and after doses >18 Gy (p < 0.009). Annual bleeding risk after RS was 4.7%, 3.4%, and 2.7% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. AVM >3 cm (p < 0.01), AVM volume >4 cc (p < 0.009), and AVM score >1.5 (p < 0.02) showed a significant higher bleeding risk. Neurologic dysfunction improved, completely dissolved, or remained stable in 94% of patients. Conclusions: Surgically inaccessible AVM can be successfully treated using RS with acceptable obliteration rates and low risk for late morbidity. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage is reduced after RS and depends on RS-based AVM score.« less
  • Purpose: We investigate retrospectively clinical outcome after radiosurgery (RS) or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) in patients with large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: This analysis is based on 48 patients with cerebral AVM greater than 4 cm treated with HSRT or RS at our institution. Fifteen patients received HSRT, with 26 Gy median total dose in 4 to 5 fractions, and 33 patients received RS with 17 Gy median total dose in 4 to 5 fractions. Median target volume was 27 cc in HSRT and 7 cc in RS; median maximum diameter was 6 cm and 5 cm,more » respectively. Seventeen patients experienced intracranial hemorrhage before treatment. Median follow-up was 2.6 years. Results: The 3-year and 4-year actuarial complete obliteration (CO) after HSRT was 17% and 33% and after RS was 47% and 60%, respectively. Actuarial CO was higher in AVMs less than 5 cm (66% vs. 37% after 4 years). Intracranial hemorrhage after HSRT occurred in 3 of 15 patients after 18 months median, and after RS in 7 of 33 patients after 17 months median. Bleeding risk was significantly higher in patients with prior hemorrhage (p < 0.04). Preexisting neurologic dysfunction improved/dissolved in 50% and remained stable in 45%. Conclusions: Large AVMs need a long time period to obliterate and show a high bleeding risk. Multimodal treatment strategies are required to reduce treatment volume before radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively clinical outcome and obliteration rates after linac-based radiosurgery (RS) in children with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2002, 22 children with cerebral AVM were treated at our institution. Mean age at treatment was 11.8 years (range, 4.4-16.4 years). Classification according to Spetzler-Martin was 1 child grade I (4%), 7 grade II (32%), 12 grade III (56%), 1 grade IV (4%), and 1 grade V (4%). Median single dose was 18 Gy/80%-isodose. Median AVM volume was 4.2 mL (range, 0.4-26.5 mL). Median RS-based AVM-score was 1.07 (range, 0.61-3.55). Fifty-nine percent of childrenmore » experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 1.7-7.3 years). Results: Actuarial complete obliteration rate (CO) was 54% after 3 years and 65% after 4 years, respectively. Median time interval to CO was 27.1 months. Intracranial hemorrhage after RS was seen in five children after median 13.9 months. Annual bleeding risk was 9.1% after 1 year and 13.6% after 2 years. Maximum diameter {>=}3 cm and AVM-volume {>=}6 mL were significant predictors for intracranial hemorrhage. Neurologic deficits were improved/completely dissolved in 58% of children and remained stable in 42%. No new onset of neurologic dysfunction was seen after RS. Conclusions: RS is safe and effective in pediatric cerebral AVM with high obliteration rates. Size and volume of AVM are significant predictors for intracranial bleeding. The same treatment guidelines as in adults should be applied. Careful long-term follow-up observation is required after RS from long life expectation.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics of 92 children/adolescents (Group A) and 362 adults (Group B) with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) considered suitable for radiosurgery; to correlate radiosurgery-related permanent complication and post-radiosurgery bleeding rates in the 75 children/adolescents and 297 adults available for follow-up. Methods and Materials: Radiosurgery was performed with a model C 201-source Co{sup 6} Leksell Gamma Unit (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). Fisher exact two-tailed, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and two-sample binomial exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the two populations in sex (p = 0.015), clinical presentation (p =more » 0.001), and location (p = 0.008). The permanent complication rate was lower in younger (1.3%) than in older patients (5.4%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.213). The postradiosurgery bleeding rate was lower in Group A (1.3%) than in Group B (2.7%) (p = 0.694), with global actuarial bleeding rates of 0.56% per year and 1.15% per year, respectively. Conclusions: The different characteristics of child/adolescent and adult cAVMs suggest that they should be considered two distinct vascular disorders. The similar rates of radiosurgery-related complications and latency period bleeding in the two populations show that gamma knife radiosurgery does not expose young patients to a higher risk of sequelae than that for older patients.« less