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Title: Quantitative Assessment of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Paraspinal Tumors

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate stereotactic positioning uncertainties of patients with paraspinal tumors treated with fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy; and to determine whether target-point correction via rigid registration is sufficient for daily patient positioning. Patients and Methods: Forty-five patients with tumors at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine received regular control computed-tomography (CT) scans using an in-room CT scanner. All patients were immobilized with the combination of Scotch cast torso and head masks. The positioning was evaluated regarding translational and rotational errors by applying a rigid registration algorithm based on mutual information. The registration box was fitted to the target volume for optimal registration in the high-dose area. To evaluate the suitability of the rigid registration result for correcting the target volume position we subsequently registered three small subsections of the upper, middle, and lower target volume. The resulting residual deviations reflect the extent of the elastic deformations, which cannot be covered by the rigid-body registration procedure. Results: A total of 321 control CT scans were evaluated. The rotational errors were negligible. Translational errors were smallest for cervical tumors (-0.1 +- 1.1, 0.3 +- 0.8, and 0.1 +- 0.9 mm along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior axes), followed by thoracic (0.8 +- 1.1, 0.3more » +- 0.8, and 1.1 +- 1.3 mm) and lumbar tumors (-0.7 +- 1.3, 0.0 +- 0.9, and 0.5 +- 1.6 mm). The residual deviations of the three subsections were <1 mm. Conclusions: The applied stereotactic patient setup resulted in small rotational errors. However, considerable translational positioning errors may occur; thus, on the basis of these data daily control CT scans are recommended. Rigid transformation is adequate for correcting the target volume position.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center and University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
  2. Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)
  3. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21367484
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.010; PII: S0360-3016(09)00564-1; Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CAT SCANNING; CONTROL; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; POSITIONING; RADIOTHERAPY; VERTEBRAE; BODY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; DISEASES; MEDICINE; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ORGANS; RADIOLOGY; SKELETON; THERAPY; TOMOGRAPHY

Citation Formats

Stoiber, Eva M., E-mail: e.stoiber@dkfz.d, Lechsel, Gerhard, Giske, Kristina, Muenter, Marc W., Hoess, Angelika, Bendl, Rolf, Department of Medical Informatics, Heilbronn University, Heilbronn, Debus, Juergen, Huber, Peter E., and Thieke, Christian. Quantitative Assessment of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Paraspinal Tumors. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.010.
Stoiber, Eva M., E-mail: e.stoiber@dkfz.d, Lechsel, Gerhard, Giske, Kristina, Muenter, Marc W., Hoess, Angelika, Bendl, Rolf, Department of Medical Informatics, Heilbronn University, Heilbronn, Debus, Juergen, Huber, Peter E., & Thieke, Christian. Quantitative Assessment of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Paraspinal Tumors. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.010.
Stoiber, Eva M., E-mail: e.stoiber@dkfz.d, Lechsel, Gerhard, Giske, Kristina, Muenter, Marc W., Hoess, Angelika, Bendl, Rolf, Department of Medical Informatics, Heilbronn University, Heilbronn, Debus, Juergen, Huber, Peter E., and Thieke, Christian. 2009. "Quantitative Assessment of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Paraspinal Tumors". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.010.
@article{osti_21367484,
title = {Quantitative Assessment of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Paraspinal Tumors},
author = {Stoiber, Eva M., E-mail: e.stoiber@dkfz.d and Lechsel, Gerhard and Giske, Kristina and Muenter, Marc W. and Hoess, Angelika and Bendl, Rolf and Department of Medical Informatics, Heilbronn University, Heilbronn and Debus, Juergen and Huber, Peter E. and Thieke, Christian},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate stereotactic positioning uncertainties of patients with paraspinal tumors treated with fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy; and to determine whether target-point correction via rigid registration is sufficient for daily patient positioning. Patients and Methods: Forty-five patients with tumors at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine received regular control computed-tomography (CT) scans using an in-room CT scanner. All patients were immobilized with the combination of Scotch cast torso and head masks. The positioning was evaluated regarding translational and rotational errors by applying a rigid registration algorithm based on mutual information. The registration box was fitted to the target volume for optimal registration in the high-dose area. To evaluate the suitability of the rigid registration result for correcting the target volume position we subsequently registered three small subsections of the upper, middle, and lower target volume. The resulting residual deviations reflect the extent of the elastic deformations, which cannot be covered by the rigid-body registration procedure. Results: A total of 321 control CT scans were evaluated. The rotational errors were negligible. Translational errors were smallest for cervical tumors (-0.1 +- 1.1, 0.3 +- 0.8, and 0.1 +- 0.9 mm along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior axes), followed by thoracic (0.8 +- 1.1, 0.3 +- 0.8, and 1.1 +- 1.3 mm) and lumbar tumors (-0.7 +- 1.3, 0.0 +- 0.9, and 0.5 +- 1.6 mm). The residual deviations of the three subsections were <1 mm. Conclusions: The applied stereotactic patient setup resulted in small rotational errors. However, considerable translational positioning errors may occur; thus, on the basis of these data daily control CT scans are recommended. Rigid transformation is adequate for correcting the target volume position.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.010},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = 2009,
month =
}
  • Purpose: The use of image-guided and stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques have made the delivery of high-dose radiation to lesions within close proximity to the spinal cord feasible. This report presents clinical and physical data regarding the use of IMRT coupled with noninvasive body frames (stereotactic and image-guided) for multifractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (Memorial) stereotactic body frame (MSBF) and Memorial body cradle (MBC) have been developed as noninvasive immobilizing devices for paraspinal IMRT using stereotactic (MSBF) and image-guided (MBC) techniques. Patients were either previously irradiated or prescribed doses beyond spinal cord tolerance (54 Gymore » in standard fractionation) and had unresectable gross disease involving the spinal canal. The planning target volume (PTV) was the gross tumor volume with a 1 cm margin. The PTV was not allowed to include the spinal cord contour. All treatment planning was performed using software developed within the institution. Isocenter verification was performed with an in-room computed tomography scan (MSBF) or electronic portal imaging devices, or both. Patients were followed up with serial magnetic resonance imaging every 3-4 months, and no patients were lost to follow-up. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used for analysis of clinical data. Results: Both the MSBF and MBC were able to provide setup accuracy within 2 mm. With a median follow-up of 11 months, 35 patients (14 primary and 21 secondary malignancies) underwent treatment. The median dose previously received was 3000 cGy in 10 fractions. The median dose prescribed for these patients was 2000 cGy/5 fractions (2000-3000 cGy), which provided a median PTV V100 of 88%. In previously unirradiated patients, the median prescribed dose was 7000 cGy (5940-7000 cGy) with a median PTV V100 of 90%. The median Dmax to the cord was 34% and 68% for previously irradiated and never irradiated patients, respectively. More than 90% of patients experienced palliation from pain, weakness, or paresthesia; 75% and 81% of secondary and primary lesions, respectively, exhibited local control at the time of last follow-up. No cases of radiation-induced myelopathy or radiculopathy have thus far been encountered. Conclusions: Precision stereotactic and image-guided paraspinal IMRT allows the delivery of high doses of radiation in multiple fractions to tumors within close proximity to the spinal cord while respecting cord tolerance. Although preliminary, the clinical results are encouraging.« less
  • Purpose: Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy enables delivery of high-dose radiation to tumors close to the spinal cord. We report our experience with multifractionated regimens using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy to treat gross paraspinal disease to doses beyond cord tolerance. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 27 consecutive patients with partially resected or unresectable paraspinal tumors irradiated to >5,300 cGy in standard fractionation. Results: The median follow-up was 17.4 months (range, 2.1-47.3). Eighteen sarcomas, seven chordomas, and two ependymomas were treated. The median dose to the planning target volume was 6,600 cGy (range, 5,396-7,080) in 180- or 200-cGy fractions. Themore » median planning target volume was 164 cm{sup 3} (range, 29-1,116). Seven patients developed recurrence at the treatment site (26%), and 6 of these patients had high-grade tumors. Three patients with recurrence had metastatic disease at the time of radiotherapy. The 2-year local control rate was 65%, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 79%. Of the 5 patients who died, 4 had metastatic disease at death. Twenty-three patients (84%) reported either no pain or improved pain at the last follow-up visit. Sixteen patients discontinued narcotic use after treatment (62.5%). Twenty-three patients (89%) had a stable or improved American Spine Injury Association score at the last follow-up visit. No patient experienced radiation-induced myelopathy. Conclusions: The dose to paraspinal tumors has traditionally been limited to respect cord tolerance. With image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy, greater doses of radiation delivered in multiple fractions can be prescribed with excellent target coverage, effective palliation, and acceptable toxicity and local control.« less
  • Purpose: Contrast enhancement and respiration management are widely used during image acquisition for radiotherapy treatment planning of liver tumors along with respiration management at the treatment unit. However, neither respiration management nor intravenous contrast is commonly used during cone-beam CT (CBCT) image acquisition for alignment prior to radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigate the potential gains of injecting an iodinated contrast agent in combination with respiration management during CBCT acquisition for liver tumor radiotherapy. Methods: Five rabbits with implanted liver tumors were subjected to CBCT with and without motion management and contrast injection. The acquired CBCT images were registeredmore » to the planning CT to determine alignment accuracy and dosimetric impact. The authors developed a simulation tool for simulating contrast-enhanced CBCT images from dynamic contrast enhanced CT imaging (DCE-CT) to determine optimal contrast injection protocols. The tool was validated against contrast-enhanced CBCT of the rabbit subjects and was used for five human patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: In the rabbit experiment, when neither motion management nor contrast was used, tumor centroid misalignment between planning image and CBCT was 9.2 mm. This was reduced to 2.8 mm when both techniques were employed. Tumors were not visualized in clinical CBCT images of human subjects. Simulated contrast-enhanced CBCT was found to improve tumor contrast in all subjects. Different patients were found to require different contrast injections to maximize tumor contrast. Conclusions: Based on the authors’ animal study, respiration managed contrast enhanced CBCT improves IGRT significantly. Contrast enhanced CBCT benefits from patient specific tracer kinetics determined from DCE-CT.« less
  • Purpose: This report describes a new image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) technique using megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) to treat paraspinous tumors in the presence of orthopedic hardware. Methods and Materials: A patient with a resected paraspinous high-grade sarcoma was treated to 59.4 Gy with an IMRT plan. Daily MV-CBCT imaging was used to ensure accurate positioning. The displacement between MV-CBCT and planning CT images were determined daily and applied remotely to the treatment couch. The dose-volume histograms of the original and a hypothetical IMRT plan (shifted by the average daily setup errors) were compared to estimate the impact on dosimetry. Results:more » The mean setup corrections in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were 3.6 mm (95% CI, 2.6-4.6 mm), 4.1 mm (95% CI, 3.2-5.0 mm), and 1.0 mm (95% CI, 0.6-1.3 mm), respectively. Without corrected positioning, the dose to 0.1 cc of the spinal cord increased by 9.4 Gy, and the doses to 95% of clinical target volumes 1 and 2 were reduced by 4 Gy and 4.8 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Megavoltage-CBCT provides a new alternative image-guided radiotherapy approach for treatment of paraspinous tumors in the presence of orthopedic hardware by providing 3D anatomic information in the treatment position, with clear imaging of metallic objects and without compromising soft-tissue information.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the effect of image-guided procedures (with computed tomography [CT] and electronic portal images before each treatment fraction) on target coverage in stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver patients using a stereotactic body frame (SBF) and abdominal compression. CT guidance was used to correct for day-to-day variations in the tumor's mean position in the SBF. Methods and Materials: By retrospectively evaluating 57 treatment sessions, tumor coverage, as obtained with the clinically applied CT-guided protocol, was compared with that of alternative procedures. The internal target volume-plus (ITV{sup +}) was introduced to explicitly include uncertainties in tumor delineations resulting from CT-imagingmore » artifacts caused by residual respiratory motion. Tumor coverage was defined as the volume overlap of the ITV{sup +}, derived from a tumor delineated in a treatment CT scan, and the planning target volume. Patient stability in the SBF, after acquisition of the treatment CT scan, was evaluated by measuring the displacement of the bony anatomy in the electronic portal images relative to CT. Results: Application of our clinical protocol (with setup corrections following from manual measurements of the distances between the contours of the planning target volume and the daily clinical target volume in three orthogonal planes, multiple two-dimensional) increased the frequency of nearly full ({>=}99%) ITV{sup +} coverage to 77% compared with 63% without setup correction. An automated three-dimensional method further improved the frequency to 96%. Patient displacements in the SBF were generally small ({<=}2 mm, 1 standard deviation), but large craniocaudal displacements (maximal 7.2 mm) were occasionally observed. Conclusion: Daily, CT-assisted patient setup may substantially improve tumor coverage, especially with the automated three-dimensional procedure. In the present treatment design, patient stability in the SBF should be verified with portal imaging.« less