skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Three criteria for quantum random-number generators based on beam splitters

Abstract

We propose three criteria for the generation of random digital strings from quantum beam splitters: (i) three or more mutually exclusive outcomes corresponding to the invocation of three- and higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, (ii) the mandatory use of pure states in conjugated bases for preparation and detection, and (iii) the use of entangled singlet (unique) states for elimination of bias.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21313144
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. A; Journal Volume: 79; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.054306; (c) 2009 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BEAMS; DETECTION; HILBERT SPACE; OPTICS; QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY; QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT; RANDOMNESS

Citation Formats

Svozil, Karl. Three criteria for quantum random-number generators based on beam splitters. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.79.054306.
Svozil, Karl. Three criteria for quantum random-number generators based on beam splitters. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.79.054306.
Svozil, Karl. Fri . "Three criteria for quantum random-number generators based on beam splitters". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.79.054306.
@article{osti_21313144,
title = {Three criteria for quantum random-number generators based on beam splitters},
author = {Svozil, Karl},
abstractNote = {We propose three criteria for the generation of random digital strings from quantum beam splitters: (i) three or more mutually exclusive outcomes corresponding to the invocation of three- and higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, (ii) the mandatory use of pure states in conjugated bases for preparation and detection, and (iii) the use of entangled singlet (unique) states for elimination of bias.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVA.79.054306},
journal = {Physical Review. A},
number = 5,
volume = 79,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2009},
month = {Fri May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2009}
}
  • We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.
  • Some striking analogies are exhibited between the lossless quantum-mechanical beam splitter and the following two elementary quantum systems: (1) the two-dimensional isotropic oscillator and (2) the two-dimensional hydrogen atom. For example, we show that the unitary transformation connecting the input and output photon statistics at a lossless 50-50 beam splitter is identical to the transformation connecting the polar and parabolic eigenstates of the two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom. A similar connection between (Gaussian) laser beams and the eigenstates of the 2D oscillator is pointed out. These analogies are established by identifying the underlying symmetries of these systems and exploiting them bymore » means of group theory.« less
  • We present an experiment testing quantum correlations with frequency shifted photons. We test Bell inequality with two-photon interferometry where we replace the beam splitters with acousto-optic modulators, which are equivalent to moving beam splitters. We measure the two-photon beats induced by the frequency shifts, and we propose a cryptographic scheme in relation. Finally, setting the experiment in a relativistic configuration, we demonstrate that the quantum correlations are not only independent of the distance but also of the time ordering between the two single-photon measurements.
  • In this paper, we report the experimental realization of high-fidelity photonic quantum gates for frequency-encoded qubits and qutrits based on electro-optic modulation and Fourier-transform pulse shaping. Our frequency version of the Hadamard gate offers near-unity fidelity (0.99998±0.00003), requires only a single microwave drive tone for near-ideal performance, functions across the entire C band (1530–1570 nm), and can operate concurrently on multiple qubits spaced as tightly as four frequency modes apart, with no observable degradation in the fidelity. For qutrits, we implement a 3×3 extension of the Hadamard gate: the balanced tritter. This tritter—the first ever demonstrated for frequency modes—attains fidelitymore » 0.9989±0.0004. Finally, these gates represent important building blocks toward scalable, high-fidelity quantum information processing based on frequency encoding.« less