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Title: HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs

Abstract

We explore the connection between different classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the evolution of their host galaxies, by deriving host galaxy properties, clustering, and Eddington ratios of AGNs selected in the radio, X-ray, and infrared (IR) wavebands. We study a sample of 585 AGNs at 0.25 < z < 0.8 using redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We select AGNs with observations in the radio at 1.4 GHz from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, X-rays from the Chandra XBooetes Survey, and mid-IR from the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey. The radio, X-ray, and IR AGN samples show only modest overlap, indicating that to the flux limits of the survey, they represent largely distinct classes of AGNs. We derive host galaxy colors and luminosities, as well as Eddington ratios, for obscured or optically faint AGNs. We also measure the two-point cross-correlation between AGNs and galaxies on scales of 0.3-10 h {sup -1} Mpc, and derive typical dark matter halo masses. We find that: (1) radio AGNs are mainly found in luminous red sequence galaxies, are strongly clustered (with M {sub halo} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have very low Eddingtonmore » ratios {lambda} {approx}< 10{sup -3}; (2) X-ray-selected AGNs are preferentially found in galaxies that lie in the 'green valley' of color-magnitude space and are clustered similar to the typical AGES galaxies (M {sub halo} {approx} 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), with 10{sup -3} {approx}< {lambda} {approx}< 1; (3) IR AGNs reside in slightly bluer, slightly less luminous galaxies than X-ray AGNs, are weakly clustered (M {sub halo} {approx}< 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have {lambda}>10{sup -2}. We interpret these results in terms of a simple model of AGN and galaxy evolution, whereby a 'quasar' phase and the growth of the stellar bulge occurs when a galaxy's dark matter halo reaches a critical mass between {approx}10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M {sub sun}. After this event, star formation ceases and AGN accretion shifts from radiatively efficient (optical- and IR-bright) to radiatively inefficient (optically faint, radio-bright) modes.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]; ;  [4];  [5]; ; ;  [6]
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)
  3. Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
  4. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States)
  5. School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria (Australia)
  6. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21296174
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 696; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/696/1/891; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; COLOR; CRITICAL MASS; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; GALAXY CLUSTERS; GALAXY NUCLEI; LUMINOSITY; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; QUASARS; RADIO TELESCOPES; RED SHIFT; STAR EVOLUTION; STARS; UNIVERSE; X-RAY GALAXIES

Citation Formats

Hickox, Ryan C, Jones, Christine, Forman, William R, Murray, Stephen S, Brodwin, Mark, Narayan, Ramesh, Kenter, Almus, Caldwell, Nelson, Anderson, Michael E, Kochanek, Christopher S, Eisenstein, Daniel, Jannuzi, Buell T, Dey, Arjun, Brown, Michael J. I., Stern, Daniel, Eisenhardt, Peter R, Gorjian, Varoujan, and Cool, Richard J. HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/696/1/891; COUNTRY OF INPUT: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA).
Hickox, Ryan C, Jones, Christine, Forman, William R, Murray, Stephen S, Brodwin, Mark, Narayan, Ramesh, Kenter, Almus, Caldwell, Nelson, Anderson, Michael E, Kochanek, Christopher S, Eisenstein, Daniel, Jannuzi, Buell T, Dey, Arjun, Brown, Michael J. I., Stern, Daniel, Eisenhardt, Peter R, Gorjian, Varoujan, & Cool, Richard J. HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/696/1/891; COUNTRY OF INPUT: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA)
Hickox, Ryan C, Jones, Christine, Forman, William R, Murray, Stephen S, Brodwin, Mark, Narayan, Ramesh, Kenter, Almus, Caldwell, Nelson, Anderson, Michael E, Kochanek, Christopher S, Eisenstein, Daniel, Jannuzi, Buell T, Dey, Arjun, Brown, Michael J. I., Stern, Daniel, Eisenhardt, Peter R, Gorjian, Varoujan, and Cool, Richard J. Fri . "HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/696/1/891; COUNTRY OF INPUT: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA).
@article{osti_21296174,
title = {HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs},
author = {Hickox, Ryan C and Jones, Christine and Forman, William R and Murray, Stephen S and Brodwin, Mark and Narayan, Ramesh and Kenter, Almus and Caldwell, Nelson and Anderson, Michael E and Kochanek, Christopher S and Eisenstein, Daniel and Jannuzi, Buell T and Dey, Arjun and Brown, Michael J. I. and Stern, Daniel and Eisenhardt, Peter R and Gorjian, Varoujan and Cool, Richard J.},
abstractNote = {We explore the connection between different classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the evolution of their host galaxies, by deriving host galaxy properties, clustering, and Eddington ratios of AGNs selected in the radio, X-ray, and infrared (IR) wavebands. We study a sample of 585 AGNs at 0.25 < z < 0.8 using redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We select AGNs with observations in the radio at 1.4 GHz from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, X-rays from the Chandra XBooetes Survey, and mid-IR from the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey. The radio, X-ray, and IR AGN samples show only modest overlap, indicating that to the flux limits of the survey, they represent largely distinct classes of AGNs. We derive host galaxy colors and luminosities, as well as Eddington ratios, for obscured or optically faint AGNs. We also measure the two-point cross-correlation between AGNs and galaxies on scales of 0.3-10 h {sup -1} Mpc, and derive typical dark matter halo masses. We find that: (1) radio AGNs are mainly found in luminous red sequence galaxies, are strongly clustered (with M {sub halo} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have very low Eddington ratios {lambda} {approx}< 10{sup -3}; (2) X-ray-selected AGNs are preferentially found in galaxies that lie in the 'green valley' of color-magnitude space and are clustered similar to the typical AGES galaxies (M {sub halo} {approx} 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), with 10{sup -3} {approx}< {lambda} {approx}< 1; (3) IR AGNs reside in slightly bluer, slightly less luminous galaxies than X-ray AGNs, are weakly clustered (M {sub halo} {approx}< 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have {lambda}>10{sup -2}. We interpret these results in terms of a simple model of AGN and galaxy evolution, whereby a 'quasar' phase and the growth of the stellar bulge occurs when a galaxy's dark matter halo reaches a critical mass between {approx}10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M {sub sun}. After this event, star formation ceases and AGN accretion shifts from radiatively efficient (optical- and IR-bright) to radiatively inefficient (optically faint, radio-bright) modes.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/696/1/891; COUNTRY OF INPUT: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA)},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21296174}, journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 696,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {5}
}