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Title: Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

Abstract

Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 {mu}M Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs and PGE{sub 2} in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single ormore » three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [4]
  1. Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Toxicology, 2215-B Garland Avenue, 11415 MRB IV, Nashville, TN 37232-0414 (United States), E-mail: dejan.milatovic@vanderbilt.edu
  2. Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Toxicology, 2215-B Garland Avenue, 11415 MRB IV, Nashville, TN 37232-0414 (United States)
  3. Murray State University, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Hopkinsville, KY (United States)
  4. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21272683
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 240; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.004; PII: S0041-008X(09)00276-2; Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOLOGICAL MARKERS; BRAIN; DAMAGE; DENDRITES; IN VIVO; INFLAMMATION; MANGANESE; MICE; MITOCHONDRIA; NERVE CELLS; NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; OXIDATION; VERTEBRAE

Citation Formats

Milatovic, Dejan, Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana, Gupta, Ramesh C., Yu, Yingchun, Aschner, Michael, and Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.004.
Milatovic, Dejan, Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana, Gupta, Ramesh C., Yu, Yingchun, Aschner, Michael, & Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.004.
Milatovic, Dejan, Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana, Gupta, Ramesh C., Yu, Yingchun, Aschner, Michael, and Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN. Thu . "Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.004.
@article{osti_21272683,
title = {Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity},
author = {Milatovic, Dejan and Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana and Gupta, Ramesh C. and Yu, Yingchun and Aschner, Michael and Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN},
abstractNote = {Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 {mu}M Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs and PGE{sub 2} in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.004},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 2,
volume = 240,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 15 00:00:00 EDT 2009},
month = {Thu Oct 15 00:00:00 EDT 2009}
}
  • Prophylactic agents acutely administered in response to anticholinesterases intoxication can prevent toxic symptoms, including fasciculations, seizures, convulsions and death. However, anticholinesterases also have long-term unknown pathophysiological effects, making rational prophylaxis/treatment problematic. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to excessive cholinergic stimulation, organophosphate compounds such as diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) induce activation of glutamatergic neurons, generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), leading to neurodegeneration. The present study investigated multiple affectors of DFP exposure critical to cerebral oxidative damage and whether antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provide neuroprotection by preventing DFP-induced biochemical and morphometric changes in rat brain. Rats treatedmore » acutely with DFP (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) developed onset of toxicity signs within 7-15 min that progressed to maximal severity of seizures and fasciculations within 60 min. At this time point, DFP caused significant (p < 0.01) increases in biomarkers of ROS (F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, F{sub 2}-IsoPs; and F{sub 4}-neuroprostanes, F{sub 4}-NeuroPs), RNS (citrulline), and declines in high-energy phosphates (HEP) in rat cerebrum. At the same time, quantitative morphometric analysis of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region revealed significant (p < 0.01) reductions in dendritic lengths and spine density. When rats were pretreated with the antioxidants N-tert-butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN, 200 mg/kg, i.p.), or vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p./day for 3 days), or memantine (18 mg/kg, i.p.), significant attenuations in DFP-induced increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs, F{sub 4}-NeuroPs, citrulline, and depletion of HEP were noted. Furthermore, attenuation in oxidative damage following antioxidants or memantine pretreatment was accompanied by rescue from dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area. These findings closely associated DFP-induced lipid peroxidation with dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area and point to possible interventions to limit oxidative injury and dendritic degeneration induced by anticholinesterase neurotoxicity.« less
  • Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from ourmore » in vitro study showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 {mu}M) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F{sub 2}-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 {mu}g/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F{sub 2}-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic transmission and slowing of the progression of Mn-induced neurodegenerative processes. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn exposure leads to neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents attenuate Mn-induced oxidative injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These agents also protect the striatal neurons from dendritic atrophy and spine loss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These prophylactic strategies may be effective against Mn neurotoxicity.« less
  • Oxidative glutamate toxicity in HT22 murine hippocampal cells is a model for neuronal death by oxidative stress. We have investigated the role of proteases in HT22 cell oxidative glutamate toxicity. L-glutamate-induced toxicity was characterized by cell and nuclear shrinkage and chromatin condensation, yet occurred in the absence of either DNA fragmentation or mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Pretreatment with the selective caspase inhibitors either benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (pan-caspase), N-acetyl-Leu-Glu-His-Asp-aldehyde (caspase 9) or N-acetyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-aldehyde (caspase 8), significantly increased L-glutamate-induced cell death with a corresponding increase in observed nuclear shrinkage and chromatin condensation. This enhancement of glutamate toxicity correlated with an increase in L-glutamate-dependent productionmore » of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of caspase inhibition. Pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented ROS production, cell shrinkage and cell death from L-glutamate as well as that associated with the presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor. In contrast, the caspase-3/-7 inhibitor N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp aldehyde was without significant effect. However, pretreating the cells with the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO, but not the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074, prevented cell death. The cytotoxic role of calpains was confirmed further by: 1) cytotoxic dependency on intracellular Ca{sup 2+} increase, 2) increased cleavage of the calpain substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-AMC and 3) immunoblot detection of the calpain-selective 145 kDa {alpha}-fodrin cleavage fragment. We conclude that oxidative L-glutamate toxicity in HT22 cells is mediated via calpain activation, whereas inhibition of caspases-8 and -9 may exacerbate L-glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal damage through increased oxidative stress.« less
  • Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have beenmore » reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically studied agents.« less
  • Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared tomore » rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.« less