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Title: Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

Abstract

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle intomore » five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21152493
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1034; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: NRE-VIII: 8. International symposium on the natural radiation environment, Buzios, RJ (Brazil), 7-12 Oct 2007; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2991267; (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; ACCOUNTING; CONTROL SYSTEMS; HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NATURAL URANIUM; POLONIUM 210; RADIUM 226; RADON; SECURITY; THORIUM 232; THORIUM ORES; TRANSPORT; URANIUM 235; URANIUM 238; URANIUM CONCENTRATES; URANIUM MINES; URANIUM OXIDES U3O8

Citation Formats

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler, and Lyudmila, Zaitseva. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2991267.
Friedrich, Steinhaeusler, & Lyudmila, Zaitseva. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2991267.
Friedrich, Steinhaeusler, and Lyudmila, Zaitseva. Thu . "Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2991267.
@article{osti_21152493,
title = {Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides},
author = {Friedrich, Steinhaeusler and Lyudmila, Zaitseva},
abstractNote = {Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2991267},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1034,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2008},
month = {Thu Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2008}
}