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Title: Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts

Abstract

The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein - Campus Kiel, Department of Radiology (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21091302
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology; Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1007/s00270-003-0253-0; Copyright (c) 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.; www.springer-ny.com; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BYPASSES; FAILURES; FIBRINOLYSIS; GRAFTS; POLYESTERS; POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE; SURGERY; VEINS

Citation Formats

Mueller-Huelsbeck, S., E-mail: muehue@rad.uni-kiel.de, Order, B.-M., and Jahnke, T. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1007/S00270-003-0253-0.
Mueller-Huelsbeck, S., E-mail: muehue@rad.uni-kiel.de, Order, B.-M., & Jahnke, T. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts. United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-003-0253-0.
Mueller-Huelsbeck, S., E-mail: muehue@rad.uni-kiel.de, Order, B.-M., and Jahnke, T. 2006. "Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts". United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-003-0253-0.
@article{osti_21091302,
title = {Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts},
author = {Mueller-Huelsbeck, S., E-mail: muehue@rad.uni-kiel.de and Order, B.-M. and Jahnke, T.},
abstractNote = {The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft.},
doi = {10.1007/S00270-003-0253-0},
journal = {Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology},
number = 1,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = 2006,
month = 2
}
  • The scintigraphic appearance of axillofemoral and femorofemoral bypass grafts was reviewed in three cases in which the grafts were patent and intravascular radiotracers defined their course. In a fourth case, the axillofemoral graft was occluded and an aberrant vessel was identified (probably acting as a physiological shunt).
  • A new device is presented for evaluating the patency of coronary bypass grafts. Bypass grafts are located within the chest cavity using a Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) technique that creates frontal plane tomographic images. The tomographic image pixels are mapped into computer memory and displayed. A display pointer is used to mark the position of the bypass graft. The computer uses that information to subsequently position a radiation detector, such that it looks at the location of the bypass graft within the closed chest. The patency of the graft is then evaluated by monitoring an X-ray induced iodine fluorescence transientmore » in the graft, subsequent to a peripheral intravenous contrast injection. This imaging and graft evaluation device is relatively inexpensive and its application does not require cutdowns or catheterization. The associated radiation dose is 1/10 to 1/50 of that associated with alternative X-ray graft patency evaluation techniques. Preliminary testing has been performed on mechanical and animal models.« less
  • At 8 and 32 hours after saphenous vein aortocoronary artery bypass graft surgery in four dogs, images of the grafts were obtained with a gamma camera after intravenous injection, 2 hours postoperatively, of autologous platelets labeled with indium-111. The location of platelet deposition could be accurately estimated from the scintiphotos. In vitro radioactivity counting of the segments of the isolated grafts showed 4 to 15 times greater activity in the grafts than in blood and 25 to 100 times greater activity than in normal myocardium. This was sufficient for delineating accurately the area of platelet deposition. This noninvasive technique maymore » be a promising tool for a better understanding of the role played by platelets in the process of occlusion of saphenous vein bypass grafts in man.« less
  • Prosthetic bypass grafts placed to the distal lower extremity often fail because of an occlusive tissue response in the perianastomotic region. The origin of the cells that comprise this occlusive lesion and the causes of the cellular proliferation are not known. To increase our understanding of this process we cultured cells from hyperplastic lesions obtained from patients at the time of reexploration for lower extremity graft failure, and we studied their identity and growth factor production in tissue culture. These cultures contain cells that express muscle-specific actin isoforms, shown by immunohistochemical staining, consistent with vascular smooth muscle origin. These culturesmore » also released material that stimulated smooth muscle cell growth. A portion of this activity was similar to platelet-derived growth factor, since preincubation with antibody-to-human platelet-derived growth factor partially blocked the mitogenic effect of medium conditioned by human anastomotic hyperplastic cells. These conditioned media also contained material that competed with platelet-derived growth factor for its receptor, as measured in a radioreceptor assay. Northern blot analysis showed that these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes the A chain but not the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor. In addition, these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes a platelet-derived growth factor receptor. We conclude that cultured smooth muscle cells from human anastomotic hyperplastic lesions express genes for platelet-derived growth factor A chain and a platelet-derived growth factor receptor and secrete biologically active molecules similar to platelet-derived growth factor.« less
  • Indium-111-labeled autologous platelets, injected 48 hours after operation, were used to evaluate the thrombogenicity of prosthetic material and the effect of platelet inhibitor therapy in vivo. Dacron double-velour (Microvel) aortofemoral artery bifurcation grafts were placed in 16 patients and unilateral polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal grafts were placed in 10 patients. Half the patients in each group received platelet inhibitors before operation (dipyridamole, 100 mg 4 times a day) and after operation (dipyridamole, 75 mg, and acetylsalicylic acid, 325 mg 3 times a day); the rest of the patients served as control subjects. Five-minute scintigrams of the graft region were taken with amore » gamma camera interfaced with a computer 48, 72, and 96 hours after injection of the labeled platelets. Platelet deposition was estimated from the radioactivities of the grafts and expressed as counts per 100 pixels per microcurie injected. Dipyridamole and aspirin therapy significantly reduced the number of platelets deposited on Dacron grafts and prevented platelet accumulation over 3 days. With the small amount of platelet deposition on polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal artery grafts even in control patients, platelet inhibitor therapy had no demonstrable effect on platelet deposition on these grafts. It is concluded that (1) platelet deposition on vascular grafts in vivo can be quantitated by noninvasive methods, and (2) dipyridamole and aspirin therapy reduced platelet deposition on Dacron aortofemoral artery grafts.« less