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Title: Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

Abstract

Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) inmore » two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2]; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. University of Toronto, University Health Network and Mt Sinai Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging (Canada)
  2. University of Toronto, University Health Network and Mt Sinai Hospital, Department of Surgery (Canada)
  3. University of Toronto, University Health Network and Mt Sinai Hospital, Department of Medicine (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21091044
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology; Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1007/s00270-005-0169-y; Copyright (c) 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.; www.springer-ny.com; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; ETHANOL; FAILURES; FEVER; HEPATOMAS; INJECTION; KIDNEYS; LIVER; NECROSIS; NMR IMAGING; PATIENTS; STOMACH; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Ho, C.S., E-mail: cs.ho@uhn.on.ca, Kachura, J.R., Gallinger, S., Grant, D., Greig, P., McGilvray, I., Knox, J., Sherman, M., Wong, F., and Wong, D. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1007/S00270-005-0169-Y.
Ho, C.S., E-mail: cs.ho@uhn.on.ca, Kachura, J.R., Gallinger, S., Grant, D., Greig, P., McGilvray, I., Knox, J., Sherman, M., Wong, F., & Wong, D. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety. United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-005-0169-Y.
Ho, C.S., E-mail: cs.ho@uhn.on.ca, Kachura, J.R., Gallinger, S., Grant, D., Greig, P., McGilvray, I., Knox, J., Sherman, M., Wong, F., and Wong, D. Sun . "Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety". United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-005-0169-Y.
@article{osti_21091044,
title = {Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety},
author = {Ho, C.S., E-mail: cs.ho@uhn.on.ca and Kachura, J.R. and Gallinger, S. and Grant, D. and Greig, P. and McGilvray, I. and Knox, J. and Sherman, M. and Wong, F. and Wong, D.},
abstractNote = {Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations.},
doi = {10.1007/S00270-005-0169-Y},
journal = {Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology},
number = 2,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) with a multipronged needle for the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An experimental animal study and a clinical investigation were performed. Methods: In the experimental study, 20 ml of 99.5% ethanol was injected into porcine liver in vivo with a multipronged needle (n = 5) or a straight needle (n = 5), and the volumes of coagulation necrosis were compared. In the clinical investigation, PEI was performed in 17 patients (10 men, 7 women; mean age 73.4 {+-} 6.7 years) with single, large HCC (meanmore » tumor diameter, 47.2 {+-} 11.5 mm; range, 32-70 mm) by using a multipronged needle. Fifteen of 17 patients received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before PEI. Results: The volume of coagulation in porcine liver in vivo was significantly increased with the multipronged needle compared with the straight needle (longest perpendicular diameters, 34.2 {+-} 3.6 mm Multiplication-Sign 30.2 {+-} 3.6 mm vs. 22.6 {+-} 2.5 mm Multiplication-Sign 19 {+-} 2.2 mm, respectively; P < 0.05). In the clinical trial, initial complete response (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 17 of 17 patients, 7 of whom required two PEI sessions. During the follow-up, local recurrence was detected in 4 of 17 patients at 3-19 months after the procedure, for a rate of sustained local CR of 76%. No major complication occurred. Conclusions: Use of a multipronged needle substantially increases the volume of coagulation in vivo with respect to the conventional PEI technique. Combined TACE and PEI with multipronged needles is a safe and effective option for percutaneous treatment of single, large HCC.« less
  • Purpose: To verify the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of large amounts of ethanol into large or multiple liver lesions, in a single session under general anesthesia (one-shot PEI) for percutaneous ablation of hepatic tumors. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (27 with 51 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules on cirrhosis, diameter range 1.0<+>-<+>9.0 cm; two patients with a single metastasis from the gastroenteric tract, 5.0 and 9.0 cm, respectively, in diameter) were treated with one-shot PEI. Results: The total volume of alcohol delivered per patient ranged from 16 to 210 ml. Mean ethanol volume in all patients was 49 ml. Dynamic computed tomographymore » (CT) examination showed complete necrosis in 41 of 50 lesions. Two patients died of hypovolemic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 3 and 7 days, respectively, after the interventional procedure. All the remaining patients are alive (follow-up 5<+>-<+>14 months) except one who died of liver failure 5 months after. New HCC nodules occurred in six patients within 6 months and one intralesional relapse was recorded. Conclusion: In this preliminary experience, one-shot PEI is as effective in inducing liver tumor necrosis as traditional PEI; its advantages are shorter treatment time and the capability of treating larger and multiple liver lesions.« less
  • PurposeTo retrospectively investigate the safety and efficacy of hybrid proximal coiling of various medium-sized vessels (4 to 8 mm) using the Penumbra Occlusion Device (POD).Materials and MethodsFrom October 2014 to February 2016, 37 proximal embolizations were performed with PODs in 36 patients (mean age: 50.8, range: 10–86; 29 male, 7 female). Vessel occlusions were achieved under fluoroscopic guidance using a 2.7 French microcatheter. Among the 36 vessels targeted, 16 were splenic arteries, 11 renal arteries, 4 mesenteric arteries, 3 arteriovenous fistulae, 1 iliac artery, and 1 gonadal vein. Intermittent follow-up angiography was performed to assess the flow for final occlusion. Outcomesmore » and complications were assessed by clinical and/or imaging follow-up.ResultsTo produce proximal occlusion of the intended vessels, the POD was used alone in 19 embolizations (51.4 %). In 12 procedures (32.4 %), POD was used as a coil constrainer to secure the coil construct. In 6 procedures (16.2 %), additional embolic devices were used to achieve vessel occlusion after initial POD deployment. After a mean follow-up of 3.2 months, no POD migration was observed but two complications occurred (5.4 %): one post embolic syndrome and one extensive infarction with splenic abscess.ConclusionThe POD system allows safe and effective proximal embolization of medium-sized vessels in a variety of clinical settings.« less
  • To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survivalmore » from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 {+-} 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374-1130] and 345 {+-} 128 (95 % CI 95-595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 {+-} 190 (95 % CI 78-822) and 345 {+-} 227 (95 % CI 0-790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 {+-} 309 (95 % CI 0-1010) days versus 345 {+-} 117 (95 % CI 115-575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.« less
  • We evaluated the safety and efficacy of image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a triple-spiral-shaped electrode needle for unresectable primary or metastatic hepatic tumors. Thirty-four patients with 46 index tumors were treated. Ablation zone, morbidity, and complications were assessed. The lesions were completely ablated with an ablative margin of about 1 cm. Five patients (14.7%) with a lesion larger than 4.5 cm had local tumor progression after 1 month and were retreated. Hemothorax, as a major complication, occurred in 1 of 34 patients (3.0%) or 1 of 46 lesions ablated (2.2%). RFA using this new electrode needle can be effective inmore » the treatment of large unresectable hepatic tumors.« less