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Title: Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part I: Kidney

Abstract

Purpose. Using a pig model: (1) to evaluate the vascular distribution pattern, including the homogeneity and completeness of the intra-arterial microsphere distribution, of 40-120-{mu}m trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (Embospheres) in acute whole-kidney embolization; (2) to evaluate the durability and biocompatibility of 40-120-{mu}m trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (Embospheres) in chronic partial kidney embolization. Methods. Twenty-two animals were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 4) underwent total arterial renal occlusion with immediate euthanasia. Groups 2-4 had chronic superselective and partial renal embolization with increasing follow-up times: group 2 (n = 2), 1 week; group 3 (n = 7), 4 weeks; and group 4 (n = 9), 14 weeks. Key endpoints in group 1 were homogeneity and completeness of acute embolizations. In groups 2-4 the key endpoints were durability of embolization and particle-related inflammation in chronic partial embolizations as assessed by quantitative angiography or histomorphometry. A numerical angiographic occlusion score (0.0 to 4.0, where 3.0 is optimal) was developed to assess and quantify the angiographic durability of superselective embolizations (groups 2-4). Results. In group 1, a relatively homogeneous distribution of the particles from segmental arteries to the precapillary level was shown by histomorphometry. Some particles reached the glomerular vas afferens (10 {mu}m diameter). In groupsmore » 2-4, a mild recanalization appeared during follow-up. The immediate average postembolization occlusion score of 3.18 {+-} 0.73 was reduced to 1.44 {+-} 0.73 (statistically significant). Microscopy revealed subtotal necrosis but no foreign body granuloma formation. The intra-arterial appearance of giant cells closely attaching to the surface of the embolic spheres inside the vessel lumen was noted. Vessel walls showed major ischemic reactions. Conclusion. Microspheres 40-120 {mu}m in diameter might achieve total occlusion of the arterial kidney vasculature when injected centrally as a result of their fairly homogeneous distribution. Segmental renal infarction occurs after chronic partial embolization despite recanalizations during follow-up. Only mild specific intra-arterial foreign body reactions were found.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [1];  [3]; ;  [4]
  1. University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)
  2. University of Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany)
  3. University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany)
  4. University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany), E-mail: goetz_richter@med.uni-heidelberg.de
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21091036
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology; Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1007/s00270-005-0309-4; Copyright (c) 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.; www.springer-ny.com; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ARTERIES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; GELATIN; INFLAMMATION; KIDNEYS; MICROSCOPY; MICROSPHERES; NECROSIS; SWINE; TUMOR CELLS

Citation Formats

Stampfl, S., Stampfl, U., Rehnitz, C., Schnabel, Ph., Satzl, S., Christoph, P., Henn, C., Thomas, F., Kauffmann, G. W., and Richter, G. M. Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part I: Kidney. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1007/S00270-005-0309-4.
Stampfl, S., Stampfl, U., Rehnitz, C., Schnabel, Ph., Satzl, S., Christoph, P., Henn, C., Thomas, F., Kauffmann, G. W., & Richter, G. M. Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part I: Kidney. United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-005-0309-4.
Stampfl, S., Stampfl, U., Rehnitz, C., Schnabel, Ph., Satzl, S., Christoph, P., Henn, C., Thomas, F., Kauffmann, G. W., and Richter, G. M. Sun . "Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part I: Kidney". United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-005-0309-4.
@article{osti_21091036,
title = {Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part I: Kidney},
author = {Stampfl, S. and Stampfl, U. and Rehnitz, C. and Schnabel, Ph. and Satzl, S. and Christoph, P. and Henn, C. and Thomas, F. and Kauffmann, G. W. and Richter, G. M.},
abstractNote = {Purpose. Using a pig model: (1) to evaluate the vascular distribution pattern, including the homogeneity and completeness of the intra-arterial microsphere distribution, of 40-120-{mu}m trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (Embospheres) in acute whole-kidney embolization; (2) to evaluate the durability and biocompatibility of 40-120-{mu}m trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (Embospheres) in chronic partial kidney embolization. Methods. Twenty-two animals were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 4) underwent total arterial renal occlusion with immediate euthanasia. Groups 2-4 had chronic superselective and partial renal embolization with increasing follow-up times: group 2 (n = 2), 1 week; group 3 (n = 7), 4 weeks; and group 4 (n = 9), 14 weeks. Key endpoints in group 1 were homogeneity and completeness of acute embolizations. In groups 2-4 the key endpoints were durability of embolization and particle-related inflammation in chronic partial embolizations as assessed by quantitative angiography or histomorphometry. A numerical angiographic occlusion score (0.0 to 4.0, where 3.0 is optimal) was developed to assess and quantify the angiographic durability of superselective embolizations (groups 2-4). Results. In group 1, a relatively homogeneous distribution of the particles from segmental arteries to the precapillary level was shown by histomorphometry. Some particles reached the glomerular vas afferens (10 {mu}m diameter). In groups 2-4, a mild recanalization appeared during follow-up. The immediate average postembolization occlusion score of 3.18 {+-} 0.73 was reduced to 1.44 {+-} 0.73 (statistically significant). Microscopy revealed subtotal necrosis but no foreign body granuloma formation. The intra-arterial appearance of giant cells closely attaching to the surface of the embolic spheres inside the vessel lumen was noted. Vessel walls showed major ischemic reactions. Conclusion. Microspheres 40-120 {mu}m in diameter might achieve total occlusion of the arterial kidney vasculature when injected centrally as a result of their fairly homogeneous distribution. Segmental renal infarction occurs after chronic partial embolization despite recanalizations during follow-up. Only mild specific intra-arterial foreign body reactions were found.},
doi = {10.1007/S00270-005-0309-4},
journal = {Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology},
number = 2,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Purpose. To evaluate trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (40-120 {mu}m) for acute and chronic tissue embolization in mini-pig livers. Methods. Thirteen animals were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 3), total arterial bed occlusion with acute procedure; groups 2 to 4, chronic superselective embolization with follow-up of 1 week (group 2, n = 1), 4 weeks (group 3, n 4) or 14 weeks (group 4, n = 5). Key endpoints were homogeneity and particle distribution in acute embolizations (group 1) and necrosis and inflammation in chronic embolizations (groups 2-4) as assessed microscopically and angiographically. Results. After liver embolization, parenchymal necrosis didmore » not occur; only signs of vessel wall disintegration were evident. The bile ducts remained intact. A distinct foreign body reaction with sparse leukocytic infiltration and giant cells was found at 14 weeks, but no signs of major inflammation were found. Particles were seen at the presinusoidal level, but no particle transportation into the sinusoids was observed. Conclusions. Embolization in mini-pig livers, using small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres, results in vessel fibrosis without parenchymal or bile duct necrosis. The most likely explanation for preservation of the parenchyma is portal inflow. Small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres may be ideal as an adjunct for chemoembolization.« less
  • Juveniles of Solea senegalensis were fed with commercial pellets under controlled conditions at two environmental Mediterranean temperatures (15 and 20 °C) for two months. After this period, the accumulation of essential and non-essential metals and metallothionein (MT) levels was measured in liver and kidney by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pulse polarography, respectively. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for selected metals in both tissues was calculated in relation to levels present in the feed. Tissue partitioning (liver/kidney) and molar ratios, considering the metal protective mechanisms: MT and Selenium (Se), were included for evaluating the detoxification capacity of each tissue.more » Ag, Cd, Cu and Mn were preferentially accumulated in the liver whereas Co, Fe, Hg, Se and Zn were found in larger concentrations in the kidney, and higher temperature enhanced the accumulation of some of them, but not all. MT content in liver, but not in kidney, was also influenced by temperature changes and by length of exposure. The BAF revealed that Cu was taken up mainly by the liver whereas Se was efficiently taken up by both tissues. The high molar ratios of MT and most metals denoted the kidney's remarkable spare capacity for metal detoxification through MT binding. Moreover, the potential protective role of Se was also more evident in kidney as a higher Se:Cd and Se:Ag molar ratios were reached in this organ. In contrast to other fish, the storage of Cd in kidney was particularly low. - Highlights: • Long-term increases in temperature entailed changes in MT and metal content in liver. • The liver is the preferred storage organ for most metals. • Se assimilation from feed results in a high BAF in the liver and kidney. • MT/metal and Se/metal are higher in kidney than in liver for most metals, except Cd.« less
  • Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixedmore » with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.« less